The installation guide for the facade tiles is illustrated by photographs taken during the construction of a suburban cottage located in the suburbs of St. Petersburg - the village of Yucca. We will try to introduce you to the various phases of the work and describe them in detail.
You can get technical support related to the installation of decorative tiles of the Aartstone brand by calling 337-51-79, or by e-mail: [email protected]
1. Getting started.
The surface on which the tile will be laid must be solid, even and clean. Decorative travertine tiles can be laid on a base made of concrete blocks, foam concrete, aerated concrete, brick and on a plastered surface.
The process of insulating the facade is not directly related to this description, but we will post a few photos illustrating this stage of the work.
We recommend reinforcing the insulated facade surface with a plaster mesh. A heavy facing stone can weigh from 45 to 70 kg. sq.m. In this case, the weight of the lining is 49 kg.
The surface of the insulation is reinforced with a galvanized mesh with a cell width of ten centimeters. You can apply a plaster grid of various modifications. The main criterion for choosing is the weight of the facing material.
The evenness of the walls is crucial when facing the facade with thin decorative tiles. To identify surface defects, you must use a special device - the rule.
A rule is a tool used in the manufacture of brickwork. Wooden or metal rail from one to three meters long. As a rule, check the front side of the brickwork.
A rule should be applied to the wall and to check the absence of significant gaps. If the gaps between the wall and the rule do not exceed 2 mm, the wall is ready for facing. If the gaps are too large, then evaluate the evenness of the wall and, if necessary, remove the tubercles, or plaster the pits. For wall cladding with artificial stone having a relief front surface ("Booth", "Capri", "Malta", "Travertine", "Limestone", "Palace Stone", "Weathered Rock", "Altai", "Tien Shan") flatness walls is not so important, but in this case, checking the walls with the "clear" rule will provide information for evaluating and making a decision: whether it is worth aligning the walls or facing them "as is". If the wall is flat, then making it a beautiful cladding is much easier and faster than along curved walls.
2. Laying tiles.
First of all, corner elements or rusts are laid. Then the ordinary tile is laid in the direction from the external corners and openings (windows and doors) towards the flat walls. Corner elements and rusts should be laid alternating between long and short sides.
Rust, rustication, rustic (from Lat. Rusticus - simple, rough) - relief masonry or wall cladding with stones with a roughly hewn or convex front surface (the so-called rusty). Reviving the plane of the wall with a game of chiaroscuro, the rustic creates the impression of power, massiveness of the building. When decorating the facade with rustic plaster, it is imitated by breaking the wall into rectangles and stripes.
The photo below shows an example in which rust stones are replaced with rectilinear texture elements Travertine.
Before starting laying, it is recommended to moisten the surface and the working side of the stone with a paint brush, otherwise the wall and facing stone will dry the solution before it has time to set. If the cladding is carried out in rainy weather - you do not need to wet the surface.
Decorative tile Travertine is laid on the wall by the "suture" method. This means that between the elements of the masonry there remains a space filled with a special solution called "grout".
Tiles are installed at intervals of 10 mm. We recommend using plastic "crosses" of a T-shape to control the width of the inter-tile seam. Also, any improvised materials are suitable for this purpose.
The tolerance in the indicated tile sizes is considered to be 3 mm. Stitching seam 10 mm wide. Allows to level deviations from the set parameters and create an aesthetic, pleasing masonry.
It is not forbidden to lay decorative travertine tiles in a seamless way. The result of such styling is shown in the following photo.
3. Laying the first row of tiles.
Laying the first row of tiles requires extreme precision. Do the markup. We mount the starting bar which will perform the stop function. As a starting bar, you can use improvised materials - ordinary boards, guides for attaching drywall, metal corners. In some cases, the starting bar is removed, and in some, left. It depends on the sequence of actions during the construction of the house - someone starts with the installation of the blind area, someone first reveals the basement with stone.
It is considered correct to place a slight gap between the basement and the blind area (up to three centimeters). You should take into account the peculiarities of the soil on which the house is built: when the seasons change, the soil can "play".
The speed of the work of professional craftsmen is 5 square meters of the surface of the facade per day. When working, you should take into account weather factors - precipitation, temperature.
4. Tile format. Tolerances. Deviations from the sizes.
Dimensions of ordinary tiles: 240x140 mm. Tile thickness: 27 mm. Deviations from the set sizes: 3 mm.
Sizes of corner tiles: 150x100 mm. Tile thickness: 27 mm. Deviations from the set sizes: 3 mm.
The quality of castings of various batches of stone does not imply deviations from the stated parameters, and the buyer should take into account only one nuance associated with the coloring of the material: Artstone brand artificial stone is made using the technology of coloring the material in bulk, followed by additional tinting of the front surface with mineral dyes of natural origin. The use of mineral raw materials implies a hypothetical possibility of insignificant differences in different batches of stone (not more than half a tone). We recommend taking this factor into account when placing large orders.
Decorative tile Travertine is offered to the consumer in three color options: sand, ivory, terracotta.
Facing tile Travertine consists of a set of elements that are stacked in horizontal rows. When laying, as we have already mentioned, tiles are not installed close to each other, but with an interval of 10 mm.
We recommend using plastic "crosses" of a T-shape to control the width of the inter-tile seam. Also, any improvised materials are suitable for this purpose - a furniture dowel, plastic dowels of suitable thickness, a wooden glazing bead, pieces of cardboard.
3 ways to lay travertine on the floor
In order for the stone to serve as long as possible and really complement the interior and exterior of the building, it should be properly laid. As a rule, laying travertine on the floor is carried out in one of three ways:
- with seams. This is the simplest and fastest laying method, which provides micro-movement to the stone without subsequent damage to the structure. For new, not yet settled buildings, this is the only correct method,
- without seams. Of course, even in this case there will be seams, but their dimensions are minimal (up to 1 mm). When the stone shrinks, the effect of a monolithic base is obtained,
- European or American method, involving the final stage of grinding the stone. To do this, travertine is laid using the simplest suture method, and the seams themselves are filled with special mastic. At the same time, the most inexpensive unpolished and coarse stone is used for masonry. After drying, the floor is sanded “under the mirror”, that is, with a solid canvas. As a result, the customer has 3 obvious advantages: a perfectly flat surface, minimal raw material costs, quick installation without selecting a pattern.
For walls, a method of fixing monolithic tiles to the wall using a special mortar and adhesive is used. In the case of large tiles, a special metal mesh is pulled onto the wall, which subsequently will provide better adhesion of the stone to the wall.
As a rule, travertine, due to its characteristics, has different shades and each tile may differ from the other. In order for the walls to look aesthetically pleasing, there is a dry layout, when all the plates are laid out on a flat surface and are selected in tone and color. After customer approval, each stone is numbered and stacked in a predetermined sequence.
Properties and features of floor travertine
Natural travertine is formed at the bottom in those areas where mineral springs that carry limestone, calcium salt and carbon dioxide come out.
As a result of the enumeration of these components on the surface of the source and their reaction with air, a precipitate occurs - calcium carbonate, that is, travertine. Such a natural stone has an intermediate state between limestone and marble.
It is noteworthy that the extraction of stone is a relatively simple process, because, focusing on the surface of the reservoir, it simply "gathers."
Rectangular tiles are most often used to finish the floor, but products are also available in the form of large-format plates and finished compositions.
Travertine floor tiles are laid in the form of mosaics or decorative panels with a pattern or pattern. There are several colors of the stone - milk-white, cream, light gray, greenish-beige, reddish-brown.
In addition to the natural sample, the manufacturer can offer an artificial alternative. Also, in addition to floor material, wall is made, which determines the scope of application.
Very often travertine decoration is performed in the bathroom or shower room both on the walls and on the floor. In the bathroom, it can last even longer than porcelain tiles or other ceramic counterparts.
Luxuriously and aesthetically, the stone looks on the floor in the living room or kitchen, in particular kitchen worktops or aprons, a good option for the exterior cladding of the house.
There are many options for processing travertine for the floor:
- Polishing. The products are distinguished by a mirror shine and a clearly distinguishable stone texture.
- Half polishing (glossing) - the tile has a smooth matte surface. The structure of the stone is clearly distinguishable.
- Grinding. The products are characterized by a rough texture. The maximum allowable relief drop is 0.5 mm.
- Sawing. The result is travertine with a rough, even coarse, decorative layer. Permissible relief drop - 2 mm.
- Bucharding. The tile collection is endowed with a rough relief with a depth of not more than 5 mm.
- Brushing - artificially aged plates with brushes.
After processing, he becomes the owner of a unique surface imitating a natural split of a stone (rock effect), artificially aged stones (antique) or a natural split brushed with brushes (fur coat effect), etc.
Travertine in the interior is very practical and quite stable, so its installation is possible in any room, which indicates the versatility of use. Mechanical effects and other loads are also not terrible - this indicates durability.
In addition, stone, due to its natural origin, is absolutely safe and environmentally friendly. The composition does not contain chemical components or radiation residues.
Travertine floors have low thermal conductivity. This indicates the minimum probability of heat loss through the floor. This is achieved due to the dense and monolithic structure of the stone. In this case, the porous material can be used under the "warm floor" system.
Like any natural stone and ceramics, travertine is resistant to temperature and humidity differences, which makes it possible to lay in damp rooms (kitchens, bathrooms, showers, etc.).
The coating lends itself well to processing and cutting. Thus, styling is available for any layman. Cleaning must be done with a wrung rag without aggressive detergents.
Color stability is another advantage. The decorative base will retain its natural color for a long time and will not lose it from exposure to water and ultraviolet rays.
In addition, the price of travertine is much lower than granite or marble floors - from 1450 rubles. per square meter, and marble - from 4000 rubles.
- The porous structure strongly absorbs water left on the surface for a long time, which requires the treatment of the floor with special protective compounds. This is characteristic of a material whose structure is as close as possible to limestone.
- Strength inferior to granite or marble floors,
- It is not recommended to lay the tiles in places with high traffic due to the lower density of the coating, in comparison with other natural stones,
- The limited color scheme inherent in all natural materials.
Travertine stone selection
The first thing you should pay attention to is the fullness of pores (caverns). The presence of caverns on the tiles is a unique feature. They give the material an aged look.
As a rule, they are found in unpolished samples. To make travertine on the floor more moisture resistant, the manufacturer fills the pores with special two-component transparent or opaque adhesives.
The next criterion is density, crystallization, porosity and brittleness. The price depends on these properties. A stone with a maximum density and fewer cavities is better suited for the floor, that is, more dense.
The presence of caverns and pores indicates fragility and susceptibility to mechanical damage. The most optimal travertine, passing into the stage of marble, and not limestone.
No less important is the processing option. Products without a relief are the most monolithic and visually massive. The relief, to a greater degree, emphasizes fragmentation.
- Polished tiles are universal because they are distinguished by good water resistance and fewer pores.
- Semi-polished (polished) is suitable for both exterior and interior decoration.
- For lovers of natural textures, products with an antique effect are the best fit.
- Buchardo, a fur coat and a rock - a good way to exterior finish, in particular paving paths and finishing the basement.
The sawing method can be longitudinal and transverse. Longitudinal gives a wavy pattern similar to tree bark, and a transverse - swirl.
In general, the quality of the coating depends on the manufacturer. The highest quality comes from Turkey. But it is Turkish travertine that is most often faked with the marking “Made in Italy".
Floor travertine is an excellent option for flooring. It is characterized by durability, density and strength, and the aesthetic appearance will complement any interior and give it a twist.
The current level of development of the stone processing industry allows the use of natural stone in mass construction - both in external and internal decoration. In order for this material to last as long as possible, when laying it, certain rules must be observed, the violation of which is fraught with serious problems in the further operation of the coating.
Before starting work, you need to decide on the choice of the material itself, as well as the manufacturer. This is a very important point, on which the quality of future masonry largely depends. If you purchase plates that do not have high dimensional accuracy (i.e., strict geometry), then during their installation difficulties will inevitably arise, in particular, a significant displacement of the joints. This can spoil the appearance of the lined surface or result in high costs for additional calibration and trimming of products. Having decided on the choice and size of the stone, specialists are required to evaluate the quality of the foundation. If it is seasoned, even and dry, then you can begin to work. If the base is poorly prepared, has significant irregularities and differences, you will have to spend time on the device leveling screed. And in wet rooms, additional waterproofing is also required, i.e. base treatment with special waterproofing agents. Another important procedure that good craftsmen usually carry out before proceeding with the installation is the so-called dry layout. In this case, the plates are laid out on the floor, choosing their optimal combination in color, pattern and variegation. This is a rather laborious but necessary process. After all, natural stone is a living material, each tile of which has a unique pattern, and in multi-colored stones it sometimes sometimes differs slightly from the rest in tone. The “dry” layout is also important because it allows you to see how the seams will fit together. If the master sees that they, for example, may not coincide, then the plates will have to be cut or this problem will be solved somehow differently. This is especially important in cases where it is planned to create a complex pattern using borders, friezes, as well as stones of different colors or textures. The more complex the drawing, the more careful approach it requires. After the customer approves the layout, the plates are marked, and the actual installation process begins.
Natural stone is best laid with seams. There are several reasons for this. Во-первых: даже при максимально точной обработке плитки натурального камня все равно имеют технологические допуски - от ОД мм на сторону. Если такую плитку уложить без швов, то через десять плит одного ряда получится смещение рисунка на 1 мм, еще через десять - снова на 1 мм и т.д. Швы позволяют корректировать смещение линий рисунка, которое неизбежно возникает из-за технологических допусков в размерах плиток.Secondly: like any living material, natural stone reacts to temperature changes by changing its size, and moisture evaporates through its pores (as they say, the stone "breathes"). Seams compensate for this micromotion and provide the stone with a favorable functioning. There is also the so-called seamless (or “blind”) laying method, in which the boards are laid almost end-to-end. Although, of course, there are still seams in this case, they are simply very thin - about 0.5-1 mm. The thickness of the minimum seam largely depends on the skill of the stackers and the quality of the slab - the main thing is that there are no problems with its geometry and so that the seams “do not run away” as a result. This method is often used in small rooms, say, an area of 10-20 square meters. m. And thermoshes in this case are made around the perimeter, hiding it under the baseboards. If the customer wants the seams to be practically invisible, then the so-called Euro-laying method can be used, which has a number of significant differences compared to the classic one.
There is no single term defining this styling option. Someone calls it Italian, someone calls it European, in Europe it is known as "American." The main difference between this method and the usual one is that traditionally ready-made stone slabs with a finite (ie polished) texture of the front surface are laid on the floor, and when "euro-laid" - sawn or roughly sanded. They are polished after installation. The fact is that, according to the most stringent standards, the tolerances for the thickness of plates (modules) are 1 mm. Consequently, the work of creating an even cladding (even in the presence of an ideal screed) is inevitably associated with the laborious alignment of the plates in height. And if large-format products (600x600, 900x900,1200x600 mm and more) are selected for laying, another problem arises. Due to the nature of polishing technology, such plates often have a deflection from the edges to the middle (the so-called banana effect). The result is a floor on which even the irregularities of the joining of the plates are visually noticeable. To remove them, you need to re-polish the polished stone. And this is double work and additional costs. The Euro-laying method solves these problems. The technology is as follows: sawn or roughly sanded slabs are laid on glue on a dry and even screed, without paying special attention to how accurately they are joined in height. The seams are filled with special mastic - a suture filler close in color to the stone, and then polish the resulting surface with a single mirror. With this installation option, the seams are almost invisible (especially on a material that is uniform in color). But the main thing is not even that. Firstly, the raw surface boards that are used in this case are cheaper than polished ones. Secondly, when laying, you can not follow so carefully that the stone is not scratched, because then you will still polish it. And, finally, during the laying process, it is not necessary to adjust the slabs in height with each other, as a result of further polishing, a smooth surface is obtained. We have begun to apply the Euro-laying method only recently and so far it has not yet become widespread. One of the reasons is that unpolished boards are dull, and it is often difficult for the customer to imagine how they will look ready-made. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
When facing walls, glue or mortar is usually laid with a modular tile 305x305x10 mm in size, and slabs of large dimensions and weight require more complex fasteners. This is the so-called classical pouring method, in which a metal grid is attached to the wall with a small gap and plates are mounted on it, but not just on the mortar, but with additional fastening. To do this, cuts or holes are made in the plates, metal hooks-anchors are inserted into them, which, in turn, are attached to the grid. The space between the wall and the grid is poured with mortar. As a result, a monolith is formed, which reliably and firmly holds the plates and withstands even small deformations of the base wall. When laying on the floor, standard modules are usually used with a thickness of 15-20 mm and a format of 300x600, 400x600, 600x600 mm. But recently, they remembered the tradition of decorating the premises with bulky plates - slabs (or slabs). The dimensions and thickness of the slabs far exceed the dimensions of standard products: their area can be 3-4 square meters. m, and sometimes more, the thickness is 20-30 mm or more. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Laying marble on the floor
Compared to other types of stone, marble is a “soft” material. Therefore, it is not recommended to make marble floors in public areas with high operational loads (for example, in large shopping centers, airports, train stations, etc.). The marble will be quickly erased; recesses, scratches and other defects will appear on it. However, in offices with a small number of employees, in offices, as well as in private interiors (in apartments and country houses), a marble floor with proper care will serve faithfully for many years. It must be remembered that this stone is different in its mechanical properties, including hardness. And if at home you can put almost any kind of marble on the floor, then in public areas you need to give preference to grades with high abrasion rates. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Stone protection after laying
After laying, the stone must be treated with special compounds. First, it is cleaned of impurities - dust, glue residue, etc. For this, only special means are used - cleaners (or, as they are also called, “washes”). The composition of the cleaners does not include aggressive components (acetone, strong acids, solvents), so they do not corrode the stone, do not change its structure, preserve the texture and color. After the surface has been cleaned, it is imperative to protect it from stains and moisture. This primarily relates to such rocks as marble, limestone, dolomites, travertines. As a protective agent, special mastics and water-repellent impregnations are used. They can be applied with brushes, sponges, tampons, spray guns, etc. In large rooms (400 square meters or more), the machine method is also used. The last, final stage - applying wax, which is a liquid emulsion or cream and is matte or glossy. Wax protects the stone from scratches, as well as from small chips and other damage. And if there are already scratches and scuffs, the wax will mask them. We examined only the main points of laying natural stone indoors. Of course, each breed has its own rules and restrictions, its own mixtures and adhesives, its own nuances. Much depends on the place and operating conditions of the coating. In addition, it must be remembered that there are no ideal technologies and methods for styling. But a true professional will always choose the method that in this case is the most optimal and appropriate.
5. Stitching seams.
The durability of the facade coating can be guaranteed only by the use of the “right” consumables: adhesive compositions, jointing compounds, water repellents. When installing Travertine tiles, a joint is used to fill wide joints, resistant to the changing St. Petersburg climate, plastic, textured, and immune to intense ultraviolet radiation is necessary for finishing the facade.
Universal grout for wide joints is presented on our website in the Consumables section. The color palette of grout, consisting of 14 shades, is adapted to the production program of decorative stone tm Artstone. When creating the mixture, the specifics of construction and repair work were taken into account - dry grout for wide joints, mixed in different proportions with water, makes it possible to fill joints on both walls and floors in residential, commercial and industrial premises.
Color Stitch Example
The composition is one-component and is offered to the consumer in a package of 25 kg. One bag is enough for 5 square meters of surface. Since Travertine tiles have a thickness of up to 25 mm., This circumstance entails an increase in grout consumption. One square meter can take more than 5 kilograms of grouting mixture.
Tinting the seams in different shades, you can achieve an additional decorative result - either get a uniform monotonous surface, or use contrasting seams to focus on the desired surface area, for example, on a bay window or entrance group.
Suture processing is carried out using a special tool, which is called jointing.
Stitching is a wooden handle with a working part of various shapes attached to it (curved, concave and straight). Joints are stitched to give the masonry a more neat appearance and to better fill the joints with mortar. This procedure is carried out until the solution has completely dried.
Special composition on an adhesive basis, carefully fill the seam between the elements of the stone. After the jointing compound is slightly seized, smooth the seams with the trowel for jointing with pressing movements and remove excess mortar. Then with a stiff brush (not metal!) Or with a brush, finally clean the surface.
It is not recommended to remove the mixture with wet brushes and rags - stains from rubbed into the stone remain.
6. Recommended adhesives
Use glue intended for laying natural and artificial stone. Make the solution following the manufacturer's instructions. The durability of the facade coating can guarantee the use of the "right" consumables: adhesive compositions, jointing compounds, water repellents. Viscous, frost-resistant adhesives adapted for Russian climatic conditions are the key to successful installation of facing stone.
We recommend using frost-resistant reinforced glue for the installation of travertine tiles
7. Start options: from bottom to top or top to bottom.
Light artificial stone (Gulliver brick texture, Luxembourg brick texture, Prague brick, Riga brick, Roman brick, Old brick, Vienna brick, Parliament brick) can be glued from bottom to top and top to bottom. It does not slip from the adhesive layer if it has been shut with the correct amount of water. For example, when facing the wall only to a certain height, it is more convenient to work from top to bottom, then whole stones will go to the upper and subsequent rows, and cut to the bottom row.
Laying the stone from top to bottom avoids the adhesive on the finished masonry, which is extremely important. Removing glue droplets from the tile surface should be done in a timely manner - until they are completely dry. Otherwise, the use of special chemical compounds will be required. The open time of the adhesive is 30 minutes. The correction time of masonry elements is 30 minutes. After several hours, the adhesive composition gains the desired strength and turns into a "stone".
8. Tile cutting.
It is necessary to adjust the size and grind the stones with a grinder (with a diamond or a specialized disk for stone), but you can also use nippers, and even an ax (a list of tools necessary for installing artificial stone). It all depends on what size you need to shorten the stone. The cut side of the tile can be toned, so it will be less striking with a fresh cut.
9. Application of adhesive.
Apply adhesive mortar with a smooth trowel to the prepared wall with a layer thickness of about 0.5 cm. Smooth the glue with a notched trowel (recommended tooth height 4-6 mm). Apply the same glue to the back of the stone. The glue should cover the entire surface of the stone. The thickness of the adhesive layer for heavy cladding is 10 mm. With a vibrating movement, firmly push the tile into the adhesive mass. Glue consumption for heavy types of artificial stone is 6 kg. on sq.m.
10. Protection of the masonry. Water repellent compounds.
In cases of frequent contact of the stone with water (use at fountains or with constant drainage of water from the roof to the facade), it is recommended to cover the lined surface with a water repellent agent for additional protection and increase the life of the stone. "A guide to laying stone in pictures." This section contains illustrations that clearly and consistently demonstrate the whole process.
11. Prices for works on laying artificial stone
The cost of the facade cladding with decorative tiles depends on the following factors: the remoteness of the object, the number of storeys of the building, the complexity of the texture, the presence of complex elements - radial surfaces, the presence of suture joints. The rates for laying travertine tiles in 2015 amounted to 1200 rubles per square meter.
Facing work requires accuracy from performers. Installation of the cladding is done in horizontal rows in the direction from the bottom up. The adhesive used in laying tiles on the upper tiers should not fall on the lower. If you do not remove glue drops from the front surface in time, it will be difficult to do later. We recommend using a brush with a hard pile (like a shoe) to remove dirt from the front of the tile.
12. Corner elements
Corner elements are designed for quick and easy cladding of complex surfaces - slopes, ventilation holes, protruding outward beams, window and door openings. The use of corner elements can significantly improve the decorative properties of the surface lined with artificial stone tm Artstone.
For facing external corners, we recommend using a special element of decorative stone curved with the letter “G”.
13. Weather conditions
Facade works presented in the photo are carried out during the autumn thaw. Part of the facade is covered with a film to protect against water jets of oblique rain. Cloudy weather can create serious difficulties in working as rain moisture falling on fresh masonry can erode the adhesive layer and stain the front side of the cladding.
14. Ground tide
The photograph shows the presence of a “drip” at the transition between the base and the facade. The top edge of the tile must be reliably protected by a base cast. Leaking water adversely affects the lining. The recommended protrusion of the base ebb is 3-5 cm above the surface of the base.
Buy tile Travertine in St. Petersburg
You can buy Travertine tiles and other facade materials in St. Petersburg at the Artstone Spb trading office located at 5 Medikov Avenue, Ideal Stone Salon.
You can place an order for facade materials, obtain the necessary explanations regarding the technology of laying decorative tiles on various types of surfaces, and inquire about changes in the prices for clinker products of TM Artstone by calling: 8-905-257-04-96, 8-981-123-13- 95, or through the order form on our website.