You can adopt a minor child, whose only or both parents:
- gave consent to adoption,
- died or declared dead by the court,
- recognized by the court as missing,
- recognized by the court as incompetent,
- deprived of parental rights by the court,
- for reasons recognized by the court as disrespectful, does not live more than six months with the child and evades his upbringing and maintenance (with the exception of cases of adoption by foreign citizens or stateless persons).
Children who are brothers and sisters may not be given up to different people, except when they cannot be brought up together.
2. Who can become an adoptive parent?
Adopt a child citizen of Russia can both citizens of Russia and citizens of other countries (with the exception of US citizens). To do this, you must meet the requirements for adoptive parents. At the same time, the court may neglect certain requirements (the state of health of the potential adoptive parent, his level of income and lack of training) if a person who wants to adopt a child lives with him because of already existing family relationships.
If you want to adopt a child who has one of the parents, you must be married to this parent and he must agree to the adoption.
For the adoption of an orphan or a child left without parental care, it is not necessary to be married. If you are already married (married), it is not necessary for your spouse to adopt the child with you - consent for adoption is sufficient.
Two unmarried people cannot adopt the same child.
The close relatives of the child have the preemptive right to adopt orphans and children left without parental care.
4. How to study at a foster parents school?
According to the Family Code of Russia, those wishing to adopt a child left without parental care in their family must undergo special training at the School of adoptive parents.
If you are already a guardian (guardian) or adoptive parent, retraining at the School of foster parents is not required.
5. How to get permission for adoption?
The procedure for obtaining an opinion on the possibility of being an adoptive parent cannot take more than 10 calendar days after the submission of a full package of documents to the guardianship authority.
If you have previously received an opinion on the possibility of being a guardian or adoptive parent and it is still valid, you do not need to receive a new permit.
6. How to register as an adoptive parent?
If you permanently reside in Russia:
You can register as an adoptive parent both in the same guardianship agency, in which you received an opinion on the possibility of being an adoptive parent, and in any other guardianship authority, as well as in a regional or federal data bank on children without care parents.
When registering, it is required to present an identity document and a conclusion on the possibility of being an adoptive parent, and it is also necessary to fill out a citizen's application form and a standard form statement.
If you permanently reside in a foreign country:
On the territory of a foreign state you need to collect the following documents:
- the obligation to register in the prescribed manner with the relevant consular post of the Russian Federation the child you have adopted,
- the obligation to provide an opportunity to examine the living conditions and the upbringing of the adopted child,
- the conclusion of the competent authority on the conditions of your life and the possibility of being an adoptive parent. Photo materials about the family are attached to the conclusion, as well as a copy of the authority’s license
- the obligation of the competent authority to monitor the conditions of your life and the upbringing of the adopted child and submit relevant reports, as well as a copy of the authority’s license,
- the obligation of the competent authority to control the registration at the consular post of the Russian Federation of the adopted child, as well as a copy of the authority’s license,
- if you are not married - a document of the competent authority confirming the absence in the legislation of the state of recognition of the union concluded between persons of the same sex as marriage, as well as a copy of the license of the authority,
- certificate of training for adoptive parents (training can be done both in Russia and in your state. If the training takes place outside the Russian Federation, you also need to provide a document confirming the organization’s right to carry out training and a copy of the program. If the training program for foster parents in a foreign state is significantly different from a Russian one; a certificate of completion of training may be invalidated).
All documents must be legalized. After legalization, they must be translated into Russian, the translation must be notarized. With documents, you need to contact the organization of orphans or children left without parental care or the guardianship authority in the child’s place of residence.
7. How to find a child if I don’t know whom I want to adopt?
If you still do not know which child you want to adopt, you first need to familiarize yourself with the databank about orphans.
You can see profiles of children without parental care online. Now in the regions there are territorial databanks about orphans (in Moscow it is the portal usynovi-moskva.ru), in addition, there is a federal bank. On electronic resources you can familiarize yourself with photographs of children, a brief description of their nature, learn about their health status, and also in what orphanage they are in, so in the future you can go directly to the right institution.
With a request to pick up a child, you can contact immediately the guardianship authority.
To get access to the full personal data of children, you will need to answer the questions of the questionnaire and provide an identification document and a conclusion on the possibility of being an adoptive parent.
When you choose a child, you will be given a referral to visit him.
The operator of the guardianship authority will provide you with data only about those children who meet the requirements you specified in the questionnaire.
8. How is the meeting with the child?
If you want to adopt an orphan child or a child left without parental care, you must meet with him before the adoption in the presence of a child welfare specialist of the guardianship authority. In addition, you must show all the documents of the child.
The fact of familiarization with the child’s medical report is confirmed in writing. You also have the right to contact a medical institution for an independent medical examination of the adopted child. But during the physical examination, an employee of the organization in which the child is located must be present.
If you liked the child, and you - the child, you need to inform the operator of the guardianship authority, providing profiles of children to adoptive parents that you are ready to adopt a child. After that, the child’s profile will not be shown to other candidates.
If you didn’t like the child or you did not like the child, the guardianship authority may grant you permission to visit another child.
9. How to apply to court?
To adopt an orphan or a child left without parental care, you will need:
- statement of claim,
- identity document
- birth certificate - if you are not married,
- certificate of marriage - if you are married,
- consent of the spouse for adoption - if you are married. If you have ended family relationships and have not lived together for more than a year, you need to submit a document confirming this. If such a document cannot be obtained, evidence supporting these facts must be indicated in the statement of claim,
- medical report on the state of health (form No. 164 y),
- certificate of employment about the position and wage or a copy of the income statement or other income document,
- a document confirming the right to use the premises or the ownership of the premises *,
- document on registration as a candidate for adoptive parents,
- a document confirming that you have been trained at a foster parents school (not required for close relatives of the child, stepfathers and stepmothers).
If you are a citizen of Russia or a stateless person and permanently reside abroad, or you are a foreign citizen, you will additionally need:
- conclusion of the competent authority of a foreign state on living conditions and the possibility of being adoptive parents,
- permission of the competent authority of a foreign state to enter the adopted child in this state and his permanent residence in the territory of this state.
The court has the right to request other documents.
Documents of foreign citizens must be legalized and translated into Russian. The translation must be notarized.
All documents are submitted in duplicate. If both spouses adopt a child, each of them presents a package of documents.
The statement of claim must be submitted to the Supreme Court of the republic, regional, regional court, court of the city of federal significance, the court of the autonomous region and the court of the autonomous region at the location of the child. In Moscow, it is the Moscow City Court.
The judge is required to consider your application within 2 months from the date of its submission. The application is considered closed. The adoptive parent, the representative of the guardianship authority, the prosecutor, the child himself, if he is older than 14 years old, must be present at the court session. Other interested parties may also be present, such as the parent of the child.
A document is not required if you belong to the indigenous peoples of the Russian Federation and you want to adopt a child belonging to the indigenous peoples of the Russian Federation.
11. How to put a child on consular records?
If an orphaned child or a child left without parental care will permanently reside outside of Russia, you need to put him on a consular record.
For this you will need the documents:
- application for registration of the adopted child with the attachment of 2 photos of the child,
- certificate of adoption,
- identity documents of adoptive parents and the child.
You can submit documents in your country personally to the consular post, or you can do this in Russia through the Consular Department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation.
12. Do guardianship authorities monitor the life of the child after adoption?
After you adopt a child, the guardianship authorities will check the conditions in which he lives and is brought up.
- The first control examination - in the 1st year after adoption after 5 months from the day the court decision comes into force, but no later than the end of the 7th month from the day the court decision comes into force,
- the second control examination - after 11 months from the day the court decision comes into force, but no later than the end of the 13th month from the day the court decision comes into force,
- the third control examination - after 23 months from the day the court decision comes into force, but no later than the end of the 25th month from the day the court decision comes into force,
- the fourth control examination - after 35 months from the day the court decision comes into force, but no later than the end of the 37th month from the day the court decision comes into force.
The need for a follow-up examination after 3 years is determined by the guardianship authority individually in accordance with the specific situation in the adoptive family (s). Control examination is carried out with the confidentiality of adoption.
Surrender a child or doom to suffer
Just think about what awaits the baby in the family, where no one is waiting for it, does not want it, where there is simply no way to support and educate it. Of course, not even one of the best orphanages can replace the warmth of parents, their care and affection. However, if you give the child to foster parents, then at least give him a chance to grow up happy, healthy and, most importantly, loved ones.
The decision should be deliberate and balanced. Remember that a child is not a toy, it is not possible to simply give it away and then pick it up. You must once and for all decide and be firm in your decision.
I will give it to the adoption of a newborn child - yes, such ads at first glance shock and wild horror. But in this case, the mother or both parents do not abandon the child, do not leave him in the orphanage or maternity ward - they are looking for a new family for their baby.
If you are not expecting a baby, you understand that you cannot provide him with a normal life, full growth and development, it makes sense to think about finding a foster family when the baby is still in the womb. Have you ever heard of surrogate motherhood, which implies the procedure for bearing a baby for a married couple. The pregnant woman in this case plays the role of the so-called incubator. This will actually benefit the baby - he will not spend a single day in the orphanage, but will immediately end up in a loving family.
Tips & Tricks
“I will give it over for adoption of an unborn baby” - if you saw such an announcement and decided to become foster parents, it is important to get acquainted with the legal aspects of such a procedure. Use the basic tips that help simplify the procedure, and at the same time comply with the law:
- Approximately 23 months before the expected date of birth, it is necessary to obtain permission for adoption from the guardianship authorities. This is preceded by a lengthy procedure for collecting information, evidence of their viability. You should not receive an application earlier, as some documents, for example, a medical certificate, are valid for 6 months from the date of issue.
- If the biological mother is not officially married, a dash should be put in the column “father” in order to avoid difficulties in the future.
- After the birth certificate is issued, the biological mother and adoptive parents must contact the guardianship authorities in order to declare their intent.