The question of how to grow seedlings from seeds is becoming increasingly important, since spring is just around the corner. Experienced gardeners can rightly notice that the conditions for growing each crop are different, and it is very easy to get confused in the mass of numbers, dates and lunar calendars. However, there are a number of rules that form the foundation for this task. Today we are talking about how to grow seedlings of different cultures at home, so that later you get a rich harvest.
General recommendations for growing seedlings
Growing seedlings from seeds at home is a rather profitable activity, you just need to study the general rules of this process:
- Seed selection. The fact that the material must be of high quality is not discussed. It is preferable to choose zoned varieties, which is often prescribed in the name. Be sure to read what soil seeds need, whether the variety is resistant to cold or disease. Remember that a beautiful picture on a package is just a marketing ploy.
- Culling and preparation. Properly preparing the seeds is half the battle. Dry seeds stuck in the ground, of course, can sprout, but they will grow slowly. To soak, you can buy products such as Epin, Humate or Zircon. And you can also use a weak solution of potassium permanganate, a solution of soda or boric acid.
Important! For some seeds, calcination may be indicated, as well as stratification and calibration.
- Soil preparation. The substrate should be low acid (up to 6.5 pH), loose, porous, not overfed and disinfected. It is better to cook it in the fall, leaving it for the winter on the street or on the balcony for freezing.
- Sowing dates. Hurry and the seedlings will become elongated, fragile and painful. You will be late — the plants will become small and poorly formed, requiring additional time for adaptation. Carefully read the information on each bag of seeds.
- Depth of landing. Seeds should not be deepened more than 1.5 cm. Immediately after sowing, the soil is slightly compacted, but not watered so that the water does not tighten the seeds.
- Features of watering. Lack or excess of moisture will ruin the whole thing. In tanks, drainage holes are mandatory. Water the seedlings under the root when the top layer of soil has dried up. If you notice a black leg in the plants, then slightly dry the ground, sprinkling it with sifted ash.
- Lighting. At the first loops, transfer containers with seedlings to bright and warm sections of the windowsill. Mandatory light at least 14 hours a day. If deficient, provide light bulbs that turn on on cloudy days or twilight.
- Temperature. The norm is 22 degrees. Unacceptable drafts, the proximity of hot batteries or wrapping blankets. You can just cover the seedlings with a film. When loops appear, reduce the temperature to 15-17 degrees, and in the second week again increase to 22.
- Accommodation It is best to plant the cultures in separate cups in a row. If there are more rows, you will have to change the cups every day. If you have the opportunity, then the best option is to put a greenhouse, since you can grow seedlings in a greenhouse in large volumes even for sale.
- Top dressing. Twice a month after emergence, water the plants with complex fertilizers. Remember, with regard to fertilizers, "under" is better than "re."
- Hardening. A couple of weeks before planting in the soil, take out plants for 10-15 minutes on the balcony or on the street. In extreme cases, ventilate the room well.
- Capacities. What to grow seedlings - the mass of options: shells, peat pots, plastic glasses, tablets, cassettes, etc.
Fortified plants are planted in the soil at a temperature of 12-15 degrees, tentatively in late April-May.
Growing pepper seedlings
- Pepper seedlings will bear fruit 100-140 days after the first shoots.
- Sowing should begin on 02.20-10.03 (depending on the variety).
- After preparing the seeds according to the technology, leave them in a warm place for 2 weeks to hatch.
Important! Pepper roots are fragile, they do not tolerate damage. Be careful.
- Prepare the soil: humus + peat + sand (2/2/1). Steam the mixture in a double boiler.
- Spread the seeds with tweezers at a distance of 1.5-2 cm from each other.
- Sprinkle lightly on the ground, and leave it at 25 degrees.
- After the appearance of 2 real leaves, dive the pepper, deepening the sprouts 1.5 cm into the ground.
- Make sure that the sprouts do not experience excess moisture.
- Landing in the ground must be performed without disturbing the lump of earth with roots.
Growing tomato seedlings
The question of how to properly grow tomato seedlings is quite common. Here are the main nuances:
- pick good seeds
- disinfect the soil
- do not plant seeds
- observe the regime of watering and light,
- Do not fill the seedlings with water, as the plants react poorly to this, and a fungus develops in the soil.
How to grow strawberries
Strawberry seedlings should be chosen, guided by what result you want to see next: small-fruited strawberries grow well and are cheap, and large-fruited garden strawberries are more expensive, but give strong plants and large berries. If your goal is to harvest seeds in the future, then you need to take ordinary strawberries, but hybrids will not provide you with seeds, but large, ripe berries.
- Soak the seeds in rain or melt water for 2 days, changing the water 2 times a day.
- Just swell, lay on a saucer, spreading toilet paper under them, and wrap it with a plastic bag.
- Clean in a warm but not hot place.
- How to hatch, land according to the above scheme.
- Stratification is possible - place wet seeds in the refrigerator for 3 weeks, and then immediately in a warm place.
- Soil - low acid peat + vermicompost + coarse sand (3/1/1).
- You can not water the seeds when planting, only use a sprayer.
Interesting! Possible landing on snow. Lay a 1-cm layer of snow on the soil. Sprinkle seeds on it. After the snow melts, it will carry the seeds along with it, but it will not “pull off” much.
- The plant needs a lot of light and a warm place. Make a dive along with large clods of earth.
- We get seedlings of strawberries in the same way.
We grow petunias and lobelia
Many are interested in how to grow seedlings of petunias and lobelia. To your attention the main points of obtaining these bright colors:
- Approximately 3-3.5 months will pass from sowing to flowering, and seeds should be sown in March.
- Pour the soil into a container 5 cm deep, compact and pour.
- Mix unexcited seeds with river sand and sprinkle over the surface.
- Spread the pellets evenly at a distance of 1-1.5 cm, and press them to the soil.
- Cover everything with a bag, puncturing a hole in it with a needle for ventilation.
- The temperature norm is 18-20 degrees. As soon as the shoots appear, open the edge of the packet, and after 4-5 days, remove it altogether.
- The window sill should not be too hot, so in sunny weather, pull gauze on the glass and raise the bag.
- Watering at an early stage, spend in the pan.
- Pikivka - seedlings with 2 real leaves move into the drawers 5 cm depth in a checkerboard pattern, deepening to the cotyledons.
- Take compost + peat + sand + humus (1/3 / 0.5 / 0.5) as the soil.
- Watering the pickled seedlings should be carried out sparingly and regularly, and top dressing only after 10-12 days.
Growing seedlings can significantly save the budget, since it does not imply any special costs. You should only be attentive to each type of crop and observe simple rules of care. You can share your experience and ask your questions in the comments.
Land for seedlings
To grow good seedlings, it is important to properly prepare the soil. It can be varied. The most experienced gardeners prepare it in the fall.
The basis of the soil mixture is taken equal parts of humus, sand and garden soil. At the same time, it is necessary to sift it in order to break up the lumps and get an even substrate for seedlings. It is better to store such a mixture in a bag on the balcony - during the winter it will freeze well. When the time comes for planting, just hold a bag of soil for several hours at room temperature. Better yet, bake the earth in the oven to kill pests and diseases. Moreover, this must be done in advance, then by the time of sowing and growing seedlings the microflora will already partially recover.
Do not be upset if you have not prepared land in advance: today it is not a problem to buy it in almost any garden center, and specifically for a certain culture.
First of all, you need to decide what you will grow seedlings in. The choice depends on whether you need to dive it in the future.
If you plan to dive, it is easier to first sow the seeds in small containers, indicating at the same time on each variety name. This is a very simple and quick way to germinate seedlings. And when the plants appear a second pair of leaves, seedlings will need to dive into separate pots. Some gardeners use purchased pots for this, while others have experience growing in milk bags or eggshells. The choice is yours.
Tip. Zucchini, cucumbers, pumpkins should be immediately sown in separate containers, since their root system suffers greatly during transplantation. These crops can be grown immediately in small 200 ml pots. And after the roots have grown, seedlings must be carefully removed with a lump of earth and placed in large 500 ml containers.
But keep in mind that not all vegetables tolerate transplanting well. For most plants, this is stress. Easier than others take root in a new place cabbage, salad and onions. Somewhat worse, tomatoes, peppers, eggplant, beans, celery.
So, what to plant, we found out. Now a few words about pre-sowing seed treatment.
Seed treatment with stimulants
Nowadays, seed treatment of vegetable crops with biologically active substances is increasingly used. In most cases, these are natural bioregulators and plant growth stimulants. Among the most popular are epin, immunocytophyte, zircon, humisol-N, silk, sodium humate and others. Soak the seeds in water with the addition of any biostimulant and germinate them in a warm place before sprouting. Shoots after application of growth stimulants are faster and more friendly. It should be noted that any stimulants should be used with caution, just following the instructions on the package. Chemicals should not replace caring for plants!
Tip. Every day, control seed germination. As soon as sprouts appear - immediately plant them.
Additional illumination of seedlings
Everyone knows that with a lack of sunlight, the seedlings will be elongated, weak and pale. Well, if she stands on a sunny windowsill. But in the spring we often have cloudy weather and the day is still short. Therefore, natural light is not enough. In order to grow good seedlings, it is very important to create the right lighting.
Experts have found that seedlings per day require at least 12 hours of bright light. Therefore, depending on the length of daylight hours, you can illuminate plants with a Flora phytolamp or a Reflax sodium lamp, but fluorescent lamps are also suitable.
Tip. Wash the window panes - this will immediately increase the illumination by 10-20%.
Since seedlings grown under indoor conditions are too sensitive to changes in environmental conditions, after planting in open ground, plants can get sunburn or wither away even with slight fluctuations in air humidity and temperature. Therefore, it is necessary to harden seedlings before planting in open ground.
If you harden seedlings on a balcony or loggia, before planting it must be hardened directly on the site for a few more days.
It is necessary to harden gradually, 10-M days before planting in the ground or in the greenhouse. By this time, cucumber seedlings, as a rule, already have 2-3 real leaves, and tomatoes - D-6 real leaves. Heat-loving crops, such as tomatoes, peppers, eggplant, cucumbers, you need to start hardening at a temperature in the shade of at least + 12 ... 14 ° C, and cold-resistant plants, such as cabbage, you can start hardening at a temperature in the shade of about + 8 ... 10 ° C .
Seedling Care Tips
Water intended for irrigation should be warm (above room temperature). Cold water adversely affects the root system of thermophilic plants, creating the prerequisites for the occurrence of a black leg disease.
It is necessary to monitor the level of soil moisture. The earth in pots should not dry out, as this will lead to the loss of leaves by plants. And excess water inhibits plant growth. It is important that the containers with seedlings have openings for moaning excess water.
During the period of growing seedlings, you need to do its top dressing several times. Observe the dosage indicated on the package, do not pour on the eye, otherwise the plants can be burned.
As necessary, it is necessary to turn the containers with seedlings in order to avoid overflowing plants in one direction.
If traces of burns appear on the leaves of plants, this indicates that the lighting device is suspended too low for additional illumination. It must be raised, otherwise your seedlings will die very quickly
At the end of the hardening period, the seedlings should remain in the open air constantly. After 2-3 nights spent by plants on the street (in the greenhouse), the seedlings are ready for planting in open ground or in a greenhouse. We hope that our simple tips will help you grow good, healthy seedlings.
Dates of sowing seedlings of various crops
The length of daylight is very important for your plants, therefore, the later you plant the seeds on seedlings, the more daylight they will grow.
If the plants have enough light, then they grow more healthy, stocky and strong. And this subsequently greatly affects yield: the stronger the seedlings turn out, the more fruit will come later.
The timing of sowing seeds for seedlings is as follows:
- standard tomatoes for 40 - 45 days,
- mid-season tomatoes in 50 - 55 days,
- tall tomatoes in 55-60 days,
- peppers and eggplant in 60 days,
- celery in 60 - 70 days,
- cucumbers, pumpkins and watermelons in 20 - 25 days,
- leeks for 50 to 60 days.
This is not at all difficult to calculate. For example, if you are going to plant pepper seedlings in open ground on June 5, then count back 60 days (this is the desired seedling age) and get that the seeds should sprout on April 5
Then you need to postpone another 10 days - this is the time for seedlings. And it turns out that you need to sow March 25.
If you are going to plant peppers in a greenhouse in early May, then you need to sow the seeds on February 15 - 20.
What to grow seedlings in the initial period?
How to grow seedlings depends on whether you will dive it in the future.
If you are, then it’s easier to first sow seeds in bulk in small containers by variety. This is a very simple and quick way to germinate seedlings. And when the plants appear a second pair of leaves, they will need to dive into separate pots.
Not all vegetables tolerate transplanting well. For some, this is a severe shock.
Easier than others take root in a new place cabbage, salad and onions. Slightly worse - tomatoes, peppers, eggplant, beans, celery.
Attention! Zucchini, cucumbers, pumpkins need to be sown immediately in separate containers, since their root system is very affected during transplantation.
They can be immediately grown in small single glasses (200 ml). And after the roots have grown, seedlings are carefully removed with a lump of earth and placed in large containers (500 ml.).
Lighting and illumination of seedlings
The plant on the left was additionally highlighted
To grow good seedlings It is very important to create the right lighting. When there is not enough light, _ it will be elongated, weak and pale.
It is good if the seedlings are on the sunny windowsill. But in the spring we often have cloudy weather and the day is still short. Therefore, illumination is not enough.
Seedlings require 12 to 14 hours of bright light per day. Therefore, depending on the length of daylight hours, use the backlight. But do not forget to wash the window panes as well. This gives an increase in illumination by 10 - 20%.
In the photo on the right, you see an advantage in the growth of tomato seedlings, which gave backlighting.
Watering and feeding seedlings
Proper watering of boxes and cups with seedlings is of great importance.
- Water for irrigation should be warm, and warmer than room temperature.
- It is important that there are openings in containers with seedlings for draining excess water. Excess water inhibits its growth.
- The soil also should not dry out, as this will lead to the loss of leaves by plants.
During the period of growing seedlings, you need to do its top dressing several times.
It is very convenient to do this with various liquid concentrates of ideal fertilizers.
Attention! Exactly observe the dosage indicated on the bottle, do not pour "by eye".
Read more about growing tomato seedlings in a separate article.
I hope the information was useful to you.