In our design organization, you can order the calculation of the mass of the ball on the basis of the task and / or the technological scheme of the production process.
The density of a ball depends on its material.
The density of the ball may vary depending on environmental conditions (temperature and pressure). The exact value of the density of the ball depending on environmental conditions, see the reference literature.
Determining the mass of the ball is not difficult. This page provides the easiest online ball mass calculator. With this one-click calculator, you can calculate the mass of a ball if its density and volume are known.
1. Determine the volume the ball . To do this, it is enough to know one of its parameters - radius, diameter, surface area, etc. Say knowing the diameter the ball (d), its volume (V) can be determined as one sixth of the product of the diameter cubed by the number Pi: V = π ∗ d? / 6. Through radius the ball (r) the volume is expressed as one third of the quadrupled product of the number Pi and the radius cubed: V = 4 ∗ π ∗ r? / 3.
2. Calculate massthe ball (m), multiplying its volume by the famous substance density (p): m = p ∗ V. If the material the ball not homogeneous, then you should take the average density. Substituting the volume definition in this formula the ball through its famous parameters, it is allowed to get with the famous diameter the ball the formula m = p ∗ π ∗ d? / 3, and with a known radius m = p ∗ 4 ∗ π ∗ r? / 3.
3. Use for calculations, say, a standard software calculator, which is part of the basic software of the Windows operating system, any of the versions that are energetically used today. The easiest way to start it is to press the win + r key combination in order to open a typical program launch dialog, then type the calc command and click on the “OK” button. In the calculator’s menu, open the “View” section and select the line “Engineering” or “Scientist” (depending on the version of the OS you are using) - the interface of this mode has a button for entering the value of the Pi number with one click. The operations of multiplication and division in this calculator are not required to raise questions, but for raising to a power when calculating the mass the ball there will be quite buttons with symbols x ^ 2 and x ^ 3.
How to find the volume of a ball around its radius
If we know the radius of a sphere, we can easily calculate its magnitude. To do this, multiply the cube by the radius and the quadruple number Pi, after which the result will be divided into three. The formula for determining the volume of a ball by its radius is as follows:.
For those who have forgotten, we remember that the number Pi is a fixed value and is equal to 3.14.
How to determine the mass of a ball
Body weight is a physical quantity that indicates the degree of inertia. The mass of the physical body depends on the volume of occupied space and the density of the material from which it is collected. The body volume of the correct shape (say beat ) it is easy to calculate, and if the material from which it is made is also known, in bulk it is allowed to be very primitive.
How to calculate the volume of a ball
To do this, it is enough to know one of your parameters - radius, diameter, surface, etc. Tell me, do you know the diameter beat (d) its volume (V) is allowed to determine how one sixth of the product with a diameter rises in a cube with the number Pi: V = π * d? / 6. Through the radius beat (r) the volume is expressed as one third of the product of the number Pi, which quadruples with the radius placed in the cube: V = 4 * π * r? / 3.
second count in bulkbeat (m), multiply its volume with an excellent substance density (p): m = p * V.
If this is material beat not homogeneous, then we must take the average density. In this formula, we replace the volume beat through its known parameters, it is allowed to take on a known diameter beat formula m = p * π * d? / 6 and for the main radius m = p * 4 * π * r? / 3.
third Use for calculations, for example, a typical software calculator, which is included in the basic Windows operating system, any strong version used today.
The easiest way to start is by pressing win + r to open a typical dialog for starting the program, then type calc and click OK.
In the "Calculator" menu, expand the "View" section and select the "Engineer" or "Scientist" line (depending on the version of the OS you are using) - the interface of this mode has a button for entering the Pi number with one click. The multiplication and division operations in this calculator are not required to raise questions, but to determine when calculating the mass beat There will be several buttons with symbols x ^ 2 and x ^ 3.
WATER DESIGN AND SANITATION
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Why propolis is needed
This is a complex mixture of substances created by bees based on resins collected on plants. Together with wax, propolis performs a very important function in bees. With its help, small toilers seal the hive and fight against alien organisms. For example, if a mouse entered a hive, then its bees will kill. But then the problems begin. After all, a murdered mouse decomposes, which will destroy the entire hive. Then the mouse body is embalmed with propolis.
So bees need propolis as a sealant and a means of combating fungi and bacteria. If the whole hive had not been perfused with aromatic resin and wax, then the bees would very quickly die from mold, bacterial infections and other troubles.
Man uses this natural wonder only for medical purposes. There are many ways to prepare propolis-based drugs that can be used in the following cases:
- For the treatment of diseases of the throat and oral cavity. For this, you can use predominantly whole, that is, untreated propolis.
- To combat severe respiratory diseases. Resins collected by bees will not only help fight bacteria - pathogens of pneumonia or bronchitis, but also regenerate damaged tissues.
- With problems with the digestive system. Especially effective is the use of propolis in diseases of the pancreas and intestines. The ability of the resinous mixture to fight bacteria and restore tissue integrity helps to heal an ulcer, cope with colitis and other intestinal problems.
- In the treatment of diseases of the urinary tract and genitals. These pathologies are often of an inflammatory nature of the infectious genesis, which is just “by specialty” propolis.
- The disinfecting properties of this product allow it to be used to treat skin diseases, to combat ulcers and wounds.
This list is not exhaustive. The use of propolis is limited only by allergies and sensitivity to its components. So this product must be in stock for every family.
Propolis collection and processing
Since the bees place their resin with wax throughout the hive, it is necessary to collect it from frames, dividers, cases, canvas, gratings, nets, etc. This sealant scrapes into grains, and therefore the product itself looks like a scattering of particles of different sizes .
It is in this form that pharmaceutical campaigns take propolis from beekeepers. This position can be explained by reference to GOST. It provides an exhaustive list of the states of this product - lumps, crumbs, briquettes, but not balls. However, it is not clear how a product rolled into a ball differs from a briquette. After all, this is the same compressed version.
People are suspicious of propolis, rolled into balls and sausages, because the contents are not visible in this form. It is difficult to figure out what exactly is rolled into balls, which is why a distrust of this form of product storage is born. There are even legends that roll wax or chewing gum inside.
This distrust is justified in some ways. Indeed, why specially roll propolis into balls, if it can be stored in a naturally assembled form?
There are several reasons for this. Among them are the following:
- By wrapping propolis in a ball, and then also in dense polyethylene, a person thereby protects most of this product from pollution, oxidation and moisture. Even if such a ball has been in some unsanitary conditions, the top layer in contact with the medium can be carefully scraped off with a knife or fine grater. In order for this process to go smoothly, the balls must first be frozen.
- In this form, it is easy to sell propolis on the market as a metered dose. Usually sold in the form of balls of two sizes - large and small. Each of them is packed in a small plastic bag.
- With long-term storage, as well as with regular consumption of untreated propolis, the balls retain healing properties longer.
- After the cleaning procedure, the collected product is easier to roll into tight forms.
Bee glue is not honey that the bees themselves keep clean. This is a building material that can have impurities in the form of foreign objects of different sizes. Of course, even with beehives or bee wings, propolis does not lose its healing properties, but it is better to use a pure product.
All methods of removing extraneous inclusions are based on the fact that wax and other impurities have a lower density and viscosity than a resinous bond. To clean it, beekeepers usually use two simple methods - soaking or sifting.
Washing in water is considered the easiest way. For cleaning, crushed propolis is taken. It is immersed in a container of water and incubated for about 30 minutes. The product itself breaks up into fractions - heavy resins settle to the bottom, and wax and foreign objects float up. They are collected by a sieve, the water is drained, and the propolis moistened with water easily rolls into balls or sausages.
It is doubtful that the balls in this case have to be rolled up in the wet state. However, this does not affect the quality of the product, which is explained by the following:
- The resin is not saturated with water, which is why it settles to the bottom. So there is not much water in the rolled ball.
- Resinous substances have great disinfecting capabilities, so the presence of a small amount of water in the ball does not lead to the growth of bacteria or fungi.
- Water dries on the outside of the ball, after which it is packed in a sealed plastic bag. In this form, propolis can be stored without damage to its properties for several years.
Dry sieving is a more laborious and lengthy process. The bond is crushed by hand, and then placed in the freezer for a day. This is necessary so that all the particles acquire the desired hardness.
The frozen bond is treated on a grater. It is at this time that the separation into fractions occurs - brittle wax and extraneous inclusions are crushed to a greater extent than resin. Then everything that was rubbed is sifted through a fine sieve. It is advisable that during the screening process the wind blows - natural or from a fan. A stream of air blows away fine particles, facilitating the cleaning process.
Dry peeled tie is collected from canvases in 3 stages. The first is screening through a sieve. The result of this action is the separation of large particles from impurities. The second step is to freeze selected propolis. During the third step, the frozen substrate is launched into a centrifuge. Here is the final disposal of small particles.
All cleaning methods are aimed not only at removing garbage, but also at removing as much wax as possible. After all, the state standard allows manufacturers to sell their goods with the amount of this inclusion no more than 20%.
Different forms of propolis storage
Rolling propolis into balls is a long tradition of beekeepers associated with the convenience of storage and sale in the retail market. A bona fide manufacturer does this immediately after the cleaning procedure.
In order to roll up a dense ball or sausage, it is necessary to warm the cleaned and tested propolis to a warm state. The resin and wax soften, after which you can sculpt anything from them.
However, here you can overdo it: the more propolis warms up, the more it loses its healing properties. Constantly monitor the state of the mass that you are going to sculpt. As soon as it begins to give in to the effects of fingers, heating should be stopped. Sometimes, if the manufacturer is confident in the quality of their products, balls and sausages roll immediately from propolis, heated in a hive in the sun.
In addition to traditional balls and sausages, propolis makes pads. However, to begin with, sausages roll up, which are cut with a knife into pieces, called pillows. There is no fundamental difference between all these configurations. Still, a ball is an ideal form in which the amount of mass in contact with air is minimal.
Some manufacturers sell their product in the form of friable mass with pieces of different sizes, because this is how it was assembled. There is a reason for this. Firstly, less work, and secondly, the buyer demonstrates the quality of the product, in which there is no excess wax. Thirdly, consumers still chop balls, sausages and pads in the manufacture of medicines. So let them also not work on processing the components of a tight ball.
The only drawback of the sale of propolis in friable form is that each of its particles is less protected from the effects of the environment.
How to choose propolis in the market
How to choose the right balls or sausages of resinous substance in the market? Buyer's life is full of surprises. When you purchase something that seems to be useful and beautiful, then at home you discover that you have become the owner of a fake or harmful products.
To prevent this from happening, you need to choose propolis according to the following criteria:
- dark green, dark brown, brown or reddish shades (black - the color of the old expired product),
- if you can taste it, then the right product is a little burning and bitter,
- the product has a specific aroma - it smells like buds, tar and trees.
How to check more precisely? If you bring the ball to the fire, you can smell the incense. There is another way - the ball needs to be immersed in water. If it drowns, then there is little wax in it; if it emerges, then it is created mainly from it.
True, it is unlikely that they will give you the opportunity to conduct such experiments in the market. So you can check the product by already purchasing it. But you will know which seller you can trust. An experienced person usually recognizes the correct propolis by smell and appearance.