Energy-efficient garden lighting.
What is the best way to illuminate a garden plot?
From the point of view of electrical safety, only 12-15V passes. According to GOST R 50571.3-94 and the international standard IEC 364-4-41-92, protection against direct contact with third-party conductive parts that may be energized for industrial premises with increased danger and especially dangerous ones is not required, and the street at a voltage not exceeding 6 V AC or 15 V rectified current.
From the point of view of the cost of work and materials, a lighting system using a voltage of 12-15V is several times cheaper than a 220V system (see section) .Then there is no digging of trenches (80 cm in the case of 220V), the need to ground luminaires, use a 3-core cable, install an RCD in the switchboard, arrangement of concrete blocks under garden lights, killing paths and lawn and all other problems
How is the energy-efficient low-voltage lighting system arranged? How is the loss problem solved in it?
The low-voltage lighting system consists of the following elements:
-Low-voltage LED lamps.
-Power supply and automation.
- Anchor mounts for installing fixtures on the ground.
LED bulbs The most important element of such a system is LED lamps, designed for a supply voltage of up to 15V and having a standard E27 base. These are LED lamps of the LDG-12.3 or LED-G3.12 series http://www.outdoor-lighting.ru/cat38/. What are their features. The power supply of the lamps of the LDG-12.3 and LED-G3.12 series is made using the built-in special driver. The power driver is a constant stabilized current source based on a step-up DC / DC converter, which provides the required current levels in the load. The driver also has LED short circuit protection and reverse polarity protection. LED lamps of the LDG-12.3 series have a power of 3.1 W, made on the basis of 40 LEDs for surface mounting. The lamp driver provides a range of input voltages from 5 to 15 V DC, which allows losses in the garden lighting line of up to 10 V (in the case of PSU DC = 15 V) and, unlike 12V LED lamps from other manufacturers, makes it possible to use them on sufficiently long lines up to 300 meters, which is typical for landscape lighting of the site. Unlike other lamps, all 40 LEDs are directed towards the base, which for most lamp designs means towards the ground. In other words, a lamp with such a lamp does not shine in the sky, but illuminates the territory. Measurements at ground level under a 1-meter-high lamp show an illuminance of 10 lux. LED energy-saving bulbs of the LDG-12.3 series with a power of 3.1 W correspond in brightness to an incandescent lamp with a power of about 35 W and fluorescent energy-saving bulbs with a power of about 7 W, but unlike them, they last up to 20,000 hours. LED lamps of the LED-G3.12 series are based on 6 bright LEDs and also include a built-in driver. The lamp driver LED-G3.12 provides a range of input voltages from 10 to 15V DC, which allows losses in the garden lighting line to 5 V (in the case of PSU DC = 15V), which makes it possible to use them on fairly long lines up to 200 meters . All 6 LEDs face up. In other words, a lamp with such a lamp shines in the sky. Measurements at ground level under a 1 meter high lamp of the “classic” design show illumination of 0.1 lux, and with a frosted glass BALL lamp that gives good diffusion 60 times more - 6 lux. In this case, the illumination decreased slightly with increasing distance from the lamp. This makes it possible to install lamps with matte shades and LED-G3.12 lamps at a distance of up to 8 meters from each other. LED lamps of the LED-G3.12 series with a power of 3.0 W correspond in brightness to an incandescent lamp with a power of about 40 W and fluorescent energy-saving lamps with a power of about 9 W, but unlike them, they last up to 40,000 hours.
Power supply and automation. The system should use power supplies of the DR series, for example, DR-100-12, which has an output DC voltage of 12V at a load current of up to 7.5 A (90W). The operating range of the input voltage is 88-264V. It is possible to adjust the output voltage, which can be set at 15V. The power supply has a built-in complex of protection against short circuit, overload and overvoltage. The power supply is made in a gray plastic housing designed for mounting on a DIN rail.
To save energy consumption by garden lighting, it is advisable to use ready-made solutions- garden lighting control panels (SHCHUSO) http://www.outdoor-lighting.ru/cat44/. The garden lighting control panel is designed to provide round-the-clock and all-weather support for the landscape (garden) lighting system with an economical and safe low-voltage (12-15 Volt) direct current voltage for humans and animals, as well as to control the operation mode of the low-voltage lighting system. When dusk sets in, turn on the low-voltage garden lighting system and turn it off at dawn.
The control panel includes:
- 1-pole circuit breaker-1 pc.
- day / night photo relay with a remote photosensor-1pc.
- DR-power supply unit from 1 to 3 pcs, depending on the type of ЩУСО.
Cable. The low-voltage lighting system provides for the use of copper wires and cable, capable of transmitting electricity with minimal voltage losses. Since all 12-15V luminaires do not require grounding, this allows the use of a cheaper 2-wire cable. Use a NYM 2x1.5 cable. Since the voltage in the system is safe, considerable earthwork is not required for laying the cable in the ground (deep trenches with a depth of at least 0.8 m), the only problem is the exclusion of mechanical stress on the cable. To solve it, cable laying is carried out in HDPE pipes using standard compression fittings (couplings, bends and tees). At the same time, the lawn will retain its original appearance, since for laying HDPE pipes it will only be necessary to raise the sod to the depth of the shovel bayonet, and after laying the pipes and cable, lower the sod into place.
Supports with anchor for installing luminaires on the ground.
To install ground luminaires on 220V, supports in the form of a concrete block 40x40x40cm with a pipe D = 35mm in the center, which is mounted on a sand cushion, are usually used. For low-voltage lighting, special supports with anchor are used, which allow you to quickly install fixtures without earthworks. This significantly reduces the time of work and reduces the cost of its implementation. The support of the lamp stand is a sand polymer tile 33x33x2.5 cm with a central hole D = 50 mm and 4 technological holes for anchor pegs for fastening into the ground (http://www.outdoor-lighting.ru/product25.html). The tile has remarkable characteristics: high strength, not afraid of dampness (water resistance) (0.03%), frost resistance - up to - 70 C, high acid resistance, oil resistance and abrasion. It can be cut and drilled. The plate is fixed to the ground using 4 anchor plastic pegs 50 cm long (http://www.outdoor-lighting.ru/product12.html).
Garden lights. In a low-voltage lighting system, in principle, you can use the whole variety of street lamps with E 27 base. If the glass of the lamps is not matte, then it is recommended to make the glass frosting using special glass to use a special mat to improve the aesthetics, increase the uniformity of light scattering, and eliminate the glare effect self-adhesive film ECLYPSE Frost. http://www.outdoor-lighting.ru/cat40/ However, the best solution for all types of LED lamps, especially when directing the LEDs from the base up, is to use glass shades with a matte surface in the form of a ball or cylinder. http://www.outdoor-lighting.ru/cat47/ The low-voltage LED landscape lighting system can also use 12 volt LED spotlights and backlights, as well as underwater low-voltage LED lamps (http://www.outdoor-lighting.ru /product140.html).
Energy-efficient 220V garden lighting.
If the garden lighting system is made for a voltage of 220V and without disturbance of the EMP, you can successfully use a LED lamp LED-G3.220 for 3W with a base E27.http: //www.outdoor-lighting.ru/product146.html Its luminous flux and features the use is fully consistent with the 12V-LED lamp LED-G3.12. It is advisable to use 220V garden lighting control panels. http://www.outdoor-lighting.ru/product147.html The structure of such a control panel includes:
- day / night photo relay with a remote photosensor-1pc.
Almost all landscape lighting systems made at the suburban areas, designed for 220V, are often executed by the method of public construction, have some deviations from the existing PUE and are not safe. This primarily relates to the depth of the cable laying, which in accordance with the PUE must be at least 80 cm and the absence of grounding of the lamps. There are no such problems with 12-15 volt safety voltage. Switching the garden lighting system from 220V to 12-15V briefly reduces to replacing the lamps and setting the appropriate SCHUSO to 12V (how to switch from 220V to 12V).
The transformer allows you to change the voltage, lowering it from 220 to 12 volts. When designing a lighting system, it is important to determine the installation location of the transformer and its type.
The installation location depends on several factors:
- the number of lines and lighting groups,
- landscape area
- technical capabilities to connect it.
We recommend that the transformer be installed in closed technical rooms and, therefore, all wire lines running through the landscape will be at a safe low voltage of 12 volts. In the case when the installation of the transformer is technically possible only outdoors, we recommend the use of transformers for outdoor use, developed with the participation of our company specialists.
The type of transformer is determined by the total power of the lines on which the fixtures are installed. It is important to correctly determine the load on each transformer in relation to the total power of the lighting system, since this will further determine the possibilities for controlling the lighting system (turning on and off various light zones at different times) and will increase the operational reliability of the system.