The fear of being cheated haunts many people, and this fear is not unfounded. According to statistics, over the past 10 years, the mining of precious metals has not increased, but the number of jewelry stores is growing at an incredible pace. Alas, even when buying jewelry in a jewelry store, there is a chance of running into a low-quality fake. Overcome doubts? Validation of precious metals is available not only to specialists, but also to each of us. There are many ways to do this, the implementation of which is possible at home.
We determine the weight and density of the decoration
Platinum is quite heavy and can only be compared with the metals of its group: iridium, osmium, uranium and rhenium. All other metals are much lighter. In addition, in the manufacture of jewelry, the weight of platinum will be from 85% to 95% of the total mass. In other words, platinum jewelry is almost entirely made of base metal. And therefore, how to distinguish platinum from possibly similar other metals is a very important issue.
For example, gold and silver products have less precious metal in their mass, which affects its value and overall value. In such a mixture, it is inappropriate to use iridium, osmium or rhenium for weighting, since they, in addition to the same prices as platinum, are also rarely found in the natural environment. To understand whether jewelry is made of real raw materials, it is necessary to select a sample that needs to be checked and compare it with a similar one in size. Such a ring will be much heavier than the opponent, but if the items are the size of a grape, you will have to use accurate weights to determine platinum.
If there is a measuring cup or other vessel for measuring volume, then it can be used to measure the density of jewelry. To do this, weigh the product and lower it into a vessel with water, after which we look at the volume of squeezed water in cubic centimeters (should be about 21.45).
IF ABOUT 21.45 CUBIC CENTIMETERS OF WATER LOCATED, YOU CAN TALK ABOUT THE AUTHENTICITY OF DECORATION.
Chemistry will help
How to determine platinum at home can be taught by science, there are many videos in which experienced jewelers teach this test method. For example, you can use the tool that is in every medicine cabinet - iodine. Its drop on the product from the original raw materials should be dark, this will be an indicator of authenticity. The darker the iodine, the higher the sample of metal, and after wiping on the product there should be no stains.
Ammonia will also be a good tool to test the precious metal. If platinum is exposed to it, then it will not react in any way to its effect, all other metals will turn black and this will be a good way to verify the authenticity of the jewelry.
It is unlikely, but you may have nitric and hydrochloric acid at the same time. These chemical liquids must be mixed in a ratio of 1 to 3 to get the so-called “royal vodka”. When heated, the mixture will gradually dissolve platinum, while in the cold, nothing should happen.
Distinguish from silver
Silver has a much lower price than platinum, which is why unscrupulous manufacturers often give silver for more expensive metal. To distinguish silver, look at the color of the item. Counterfeit metal is lighter, while silver has a certain gray tint. Also remember that platinum does not make large jewelry because of the high cost, so if you are offered a large chain at a low price, then with a high degree of probability this is a hoax.
From left to right: silver, platinum and white gold.
You can check platinum at home “by the tooth”, platinum will tolerate biting, and silver will receive a small mark from the tooth. Platinum is harder and therefore resistant to physical impact. At home, you can still take a foul egg, on which you can put both jewelry. Silver will blacken due to hydrogen sulfide, while platinum will retain its fresh appearance as before, which will help determine the authenticity of the product.
Platinum is very refractory, so it cannot be melted with a lighter flame. Also, it does not succumb to a gas stove and even a burner. This material does not change color when heated, since it is impossible to quickly change its temperature. That is why, with a brief heating of the platinum ring, you can safely put it on your finger, because the decoration will not have time to warm up inside. But on the basis of this experiment it is impossible to draw unambiguous conclusions, which means that you must either use other methods of verification or consult a specialist who knows exactly how to verify the authenticity of the product from the platinum you purchased.
It is the specialist who will be able to help if you do not know how to check platinum. And it is only then that you can be completely sure that you are wearing a real noble metal.
Not all the gold that glitters
Only a jeweler, who has at his disposal all the necessary analytical equipment, can check a gold product and give a reliable conclusion on belonging to a noble metal. A professional check is carried out by the Assay Chamber. Examination of gold jewelry is not a cheap pleasure, the price of the service ranges from 10 to 20% of the estimated value of the product. Gold is forged more and more often, and nobody wants to spend money for nothing. By the way, the need to verify gold for authenticity may arise not only in relation to jewelry, but also, for example, when buying ingots or nuggets.
Silver earrings with cubic zirconia, SL, (price by reference)
The most difficult type of fake for the independent determination of gold is a blank of jewelry, on which the thinnest layer of precious metal is applied. It is extremely difficult to determine the authenticity of such work at home without harming the product.
The most common gold counterfeiting methods:
- surface gold plating
- copper replacement
- alloys of aluminum and other metals,
- alloy of titanium and gold.
Fake jewelry made of alloys similar in color to gold leaves spots with a green tint on the skin, especially when the ring is worn for a long time. The substitution of gold for less valuable metal alloys by others or similar sputtering can be determined using widely known methods.
The first step is checking gold by comparison. Surely you have jewelry, the authenticity of which you have no doubt. On a hard object, draw a line with these two decorations. Gold items will leave the same mark, but if there are differences, this is a direct reason to doubt the quality.
Use a magnifying glass to peer into the mark on which the sample of gold should be reflected. It should be clear, without damage.
The cost of a gram of gold changes daily, however, you should rely on it when buying jewelry, even if they are not purchased in a store.
Gold ring with diamonds and citrines, SL, gold earrings with diamonds and citrines, SL, (price by reference)
There is also an opinion that sound helps to calculate a copy. Crystal ringing upon impact on a hard surface emit gold items. Deaf or any other sound is cause for concern.
Iodine is able to change the color of most components that are used to falsify a precious metal, but at the same time such a sample is completely harmless for jewelry with a sample above 500 (i.e., which contains more than 50 mass percent of gold).
A drop of a pharmacy alcohol solution of iodine should be applied to a product of doubt, and after 10-15 seconds remove its remains with a napkin. If a trace of iodine remains, then this is not a golden item. Unchanged metal color may indicate authenticity.
Precious metals are not exposed to a magnet. Steel products, covered with a thin layer of gilding, are instantly attracted to the surface of the magnet, a real gold jewelry will not respond to the magnet.
Many manufacturers use lock designs for chains and bracelets, which include a steel spring - in this case, the magnet will attract only the lock.
Indifference to a magnet is a prerequisite, but not sufficient. For example, most copper and tin alloys are non-magnetic. However, such products are much lighter: the difference in weight can be felt even without analytical weights.
Cheap fake blackens under the influence of acetic acid. If you lower gold into it with a breakdown above 500, then nothing will happen to it. This is another valid authentication method. 3-5 minutes is enough to conduct an experiment.
You probably saw in the movies how the main characters tried the gold coin “by the teeth”. This method is suitable only for high-grade gold (whiter than 900), which is relatively soft. On such gold, the teeth mark will necessarily remain, since its hardness is much lower than that of other metals.
Gold Identification Using Analytical Instruments
Instant recognition of metal components at home is possible using a special device called a metal analyzer. The result is displayed on the screen for 2-3 seconds. To obtain it, it is necessary to point the device at the object under study. The analyzer is widely used by miners of precious metals.
Gold earrings with diamonds and sapphires, SL, (price by reference)
In order not to doubt the authenticity of the gold jewelry, one should choose the place of its purchase correctly. Jewelry stores and pawnshops are points of sale for a real noble metal. Hand buying is always a risk.
Platinum jewelery authentication: an expert on his own
Platinum is a precious metal used in the manufacture of jewelry. Silver-white metal got its fame in the XVIII century, but only in our time began to be widely used by jewelers. As a rule, only small jewelry, such as rings, earrings and chains, are made of platinum. This is due to the high cost of the material.
With the proliferation of the Internet, buying jewelry has become much easier. However, you will not have the opportunity to consider the product before purchase, which means you may encounter a fake. Many people prefer not to take risks when buying jewelry in specialized stores, but even in this case you are not immune from fakes. So how do you independently verify the authenticity of jewelry made of platinum?
Determination of weight and density of the product
Platinum is a heavy metal whose weight is comparable only to iridium, osmium, rhenium and uranium. All other elements are easier. In addition, in the manufacture of jewelry, the proportion of platinum ranges from 85% to 95% of the total weight of the product. That is, jewelry is almost 100% made of this noble metal. Products made of gold and silver, for example, have in their composition a much lower weight of the precious metal.
The use of iridium, osmium and rhenium in order to weight the jewelry is impractical, since these elements have the same cost as platinum, and besides, they are rarely found in nature. Pick up a platinum ring and a similar sized ring of another metal. A platinum product will be heavier than a similar jewelry made of another alloy.
If you have a suitable measuring vessel, then you can measure the density of the product. To do this, you need to weigh the precious accessory, and then place it in a bowl of water and determine the volume of the displaced liquid in cubic centimeters. After that, the weight of the decoration in grams should be divided by the value of the water displaced by it in cubic centimeters. The resulting value should be next to the number 21.45. In this case, it is safe to say that the platinum jewel is genuine.
- Iodine. Take regular medical iodine and drip onto a platinum product. The drop should have a dark color, only in this case we can talk about the authenticity of the noble metal. The darker it is, the higher the fineness of the decoration. No stains on the accessory should remain. Also, no spots will remain from acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide.
- Ammonia. All precious metals except platinum react to this substance. Only it does not blacken and does not react with ammonia.
- Nitric and hydrochloric acid. These chemicals should be mixed in a 1: 3 ratio to produce “aqua regia.” When heated, this mixture will slowly dissolve the platinum product. When cold, no changes will occur.
How to distinguish platinum from silver
Silver is much cheaper than platinum, so some negligent manufacturers under the guise of an expensive noble metal sell silverware. To distinguish a fake, you first need to consider the color of the precious jewelry. Platinum is a lighter metal, and silver has a gray tint. In addition, due to the high cost of platinum, large products are not made from it. If you are offered a massive chain and at a bargain price, then most likely they are trying to deceive you by selling a silver accessory.
You can try to try both products on the tooth. Nothing will be left on platinum, while a light trace will remain on silver. This is due to the fact that platinum has a higher density. In addition, these elements react differently in chemical reactions, for example with hydrogen sulfide. At home, you can use a rotten egg, on which should be placed in turn jewelry from two metals. Silver turns black under the influence of hydrogen sulfide, and nothing happens with platinum.
Platinum refers to refractory metals, so it can not be melted with a conventional lighter, a flame of a stove or a gas burner. Platinum jewelry will not change color even with strong heating. By the way, platinum has a rather low thermal conductivity, which means that the product from it will heat up longer than, for example, from silver and gold, however, to draw any conclusions based on this property is very problematic.
Cufflinks in silver, Okami, (price by reference)
If you still doubt the authenticity of the platinum jewelry, then the best option is to contact a professional. Then you will have no doubts, and you will be sure that your jewelry is made of noble metal.
Self-authentication of silver jewelry
Silver is a noble metal whose properties have been appreciated many centuries ago. Pure silver and alloys based on it are widely used in the manufacture of jewelry, dishes, cutlery, and instrument making.
The cost of silver is quite high, and, by the way, recently, prices for this metal on world exchanges are constantly growing. Not surprisingly, the number of fakes and falsifications is also increasing. When buying silver items, you first need to pay attention to the test. It is quite difficult to fake it: only cliche specialists can make cliches. On the surface of the product, the sample should be well readable, with even, clear outlines. The assay mark on silver products of Russian manufacture has the form of a rectangle, inside of which a three-digit number is printed, showing the proportion of chemically pure silver in the product.
The amount of impurities determines the quality of the metal. The following samples are most common: 720, 750, 800, 875, 916, 925, 960. Sample 720 means that the jewelry alloy contains 72% silver, 750 - 75%, and so on. From this dependence it follows that the higher the sample, the higher the cost of the product.
Alloys 750 and 800 contain a lot of copper, so they are yellowish in appearance. Of these, cutlery is usually made. The silver of this sample is susceptible to oxidation, so you will have to clean spoons and forks quite often.
Quality silver, used for the production of jewelry, has a fineness of 925 and above.
Silver ring with cubic zirconia, SL, (price by reference)
If there is no test on the item issued as silver, you can turn to a jeweler for a determination, for example, take it to a pawnshop and ask for an estimate. In addition, there are many ways to verify the authenticity of things yourself.
Express methods for determining the authenticity of silver at home
- One sure way is a magnet: silver should not be attracted. However, this test alone is not enough: a lot of alloys imitating silver also do not have magnetic properties.
- To determine the use of sulfuric ointment, which can be bought at any pharmacy. The product must be smeared with a thick layer and allowed to lie down for a couple of hours. Genuine silver or an alloy with a high content of this precious metal is bound to blacken.
- Test with iodine. Under a drop of an alcoholic solution of iodine, silver also blackens, and the higher its quality, the stronger. Но здесь надо действовать осторожно, эти манипуляции могут привести к порче вещи, поскольку удалить пятно будет очень трудно.
- Часто за серебро выдают посеребренную латунь или медь. Можно сделать царапинку в неприметном месте: если на краях надпила появится красноватый или рыжий оттенок, это — подделка.
- Серебро достаточно легко гнется, а после прекращения воздействия не восстанавливает форму (посеребренные медт и латунь слабо пружинят, т. к. обладают высокой упругостью).
- Silver has a high thermal conductivity. A thing dipped in hot water instantly heats up. She also quickly takes the temperature of the human body.
- When wearing fake jewelry, dark streaks remain on the skin. This indicates the addition of significantly cheaper zinc. Jewelry made of such alloys is very fragile, often breaking.
- Silver has a specific smell; people with a sensitive sense of smell can determine the authenticity of a product.
All of these verification methods are quite superficial, and can only be used for preliminary assessment. The guarantee that the product is made of silver, and not just silvered, can only be given by an expert jeweler. To ensure 100% authenticity, you will have to make a file or carry out calculations with a specific gravity.
Real silver darkens over time. But this takes years, in addition, its brilliance can be easily returned. To do this, use a special cream or ammonia. The shine of low-quality products disappears forever.
One of the most accurate methods for determining the authenticity of silver at home is the silver test, which can be bought at specialized stores or online. Following a simple instruction, with a high degree of probability it is possible to determine not only the authenticity of the product, but also an approximate sample.
There are electronic devices that can distinguish silver, gold, white gold, platinum. However, their cost is so high that a purchase for the purpose of a one-time determination of precious metals at home is not economically justified.
In the end
Counterfeiting precious metals is one of the most common methods of fraud. The increase in the number of frauds is explained by the high income of fraudsters and the difficulty of suppressing activities of this kind. That is why buying should be taken seriously. Only specialized stores directly working with manufacturers can guarantee the safety and quality of precious metal products.
She, as a business woman, is independent and luxurious! Guess who we are talking about? That's right - it's platinum. Unmatched jewelry made of platinum can melt even the icy heart of the snow queen. What is there to hide, to pass by the sparkling show-window of a salon with decorations is a real test for any woman. Platinum chains, necklaces, earrings and tiaras flickering with bright light and fascinate with their beauty and elegance. Platinum jewelry is superior in value to gold and any other precious metals. Therefore, to be the owner of a jewelry made of platinum is a privilege that is not accessible to everyone. This is a kind of status accessory, an indicator of respectability, solidity and good taste.
Among other things, platinum wedding rings are today considered ideal for young couples. They look great both on the delicate fingers of girls and on the courageous hands of their grooms. Platinum jewelry always becomes the central part of the image, perfectly complementing both the evening dress and office outfit.
History of metal mining
Historical findings confirm that analogues of this metal were known in ancient Egypt and were used for the manufacture of jewelry. But over time, they quickly forgot about him. And when platinum appeared in medieval Europe, then its cost was half the price of silver. Some sources claim that in translation from Spanish this mineral is translated as "silver". It is interesting that platinum was used to counterfeit silver, but because of its refractoriness, the metal deserved a neglect. By the way, the Americans were the first to think of such a theory in the 17th century and immediately, to avoid counterfeiting, sent its supplies to the bottom of the ocean. Amazing, right? After some time in Spain, as a result of experiments, jewelers revealed that platinum is excellently alloyed with gold, increasing its performance and began to use it in jewelry making. A century later, in the Russian Empire, they learned about platinum, they even issued coins from it. But, as soon as the true chemical and physical properties of the metal were discovered throughout Europe, its price increased. Russian officials could only quickly remove the coins from circulation, since their real value significantly exceeded the face value. Today in the modern market, the price of platinum is about 100 times higher than the similar cost of silver. An important role in the formation of pricing was played by the rarity of the metal. In its pure form, platinum can not be found, even nuggets contain only 70-90% of pure metal. Its deposit is mainly located in Russia, the USA, Zimbabwe, South Africa and China, and this is approximately 90% of all land reserves. To produce one ounce of platinum, which is 31.1 grams, the processing of more than 10 tons of ore is required.
Properties and features of platinum
Platinum is a light silver precious metal. As mentioned above, it is very rare, highly regarded and associated with luxury. In many ways, such estimates and characteristics are associated with the properties of this element.
Platinum is a truly magnificent jewelry metal, which, in comparison with the same gold, has a number of excellent advantages. In addition to amazing brilliance and aesthetic beauty, its main feature is strength. This is one of the reasons why platinum engagement rings with diamonds are so popular today. Such products are an ideal combination, they are not afraid of mechanical damage, deformation or wear. Buying platinum rings you can be sure that their pristine beauty will delight you for a long time. Such jewelry is also characterized by the fact that their frame perfectly holds the stone, and the risk that it will be lost over time is very minimal.
Amazingly, a thin 2-kilometer wire can be made from 1 gram of platinum. The precious metal is very ductile, this remarkable quality allows jewelers to create extremely delicate, beautiful and exclusive accessories that, for example, cannot be made of gold or silver. Platinum bears the title of eternal metal, it is not afraid of interacting with water, air, household chemicals, acids and other means.
True, metal in its pure form is not used to create jewelry. In Ukraine, and in most European countries, there are reference samples of platinum alloys: 750, 850, 900 and 950. As you can see, the percentage of platinum in these products is 75, 85, 90 and 95%, and this is a rather serious percentage. Jewelry made of platinum does not contain allergic impurities, and therefore does not cause reactions or irritations to the skin.
International jewelry houses, collectors and celebrities around the world have long placed platinum on a pedestal and made it the No. 1 precious metal in jewelry.
The most impressive platinum jewelery!
How much do you think a platinum ring costs? As much as you are ready to give for it. It's hard to believe, but our next selection of famous platinum jewelry will surely amaze you.
- Especially for Natalie Portman, her fiancé Benjamin Milpieu presented a platinum ring from Jamie Wolf. He worked together with a jeweler on the creation of this masterpiece, relying on the tastes and preferences of his chosen one. The cost of the product is 35 thousand dollars.
Famous actor and romantic Tom Cruise made Katie Holmes an offer at the Eiffel Tower in Paris. In addition, he acquired the perfect 5-carat diamond platinum ring immediately after his first date with his lover. And he gave for it not a little - 250 thousand dollars.
Prince Charles, a Briton of blue blood, for example, gave for a completely “conservative” engagement ring for his bride Camilla Parker, “nothing at all” - $ 1 million. The bride received a large square diamond in a luxurious platinum frame.
The wife of President of America Donald Trump Melania Knauss received from her famous husband one of the most expensive jewelry of all time - a 15-carat diamond in a platinum frame. The decoration was created by House of Graff and cost "just" $ 3 million.
Who would have thought, but the famous rapper Jay-Z spared nothing for his lover. So he spent $ 5 million on a gift to singer Beyonce Knowles - a platinum engagement ring with an 18-carat octagonal diamond.
Jewelry factory "ZBIRD" offers you a selection of stylish and sophisticated platinum jewelry with real precious stones. If you are looking for a truly exquisite and impressive gift, we know what to offer. Our company is at your service at any time!
Engagement is what real family life begins with. At one point, two people meet, start to communicate, and eventually realize that they cannot live without each other. What follows next? This is a rhetorical question, the girl expects a beautiful declaration of love and an offer to get married, well, the guy has to choose a ring and, in fact, pronounce the coveted words.
For some, creating jewelry is just a job, but for the elite it is a true calling in life. To see aesthetics in metal, to harmoniously combine it with a stone, to feel the beauty, to create truly real value - not everyone is capable of this. Of course, the jewelry world in our time is quite wide and diverse. And, having run through the pages of the Internet, you can learn a lot, see a lot. But who created the first masterpieces of jewelry art?