In case of emergencies throughout the country and at all enterprises, warning and information systems are being created.
A prerequisite for the public to receive a warning signal or urgent information is the transmission at its beginning of an intermittent sound of an electric siren, which means “Attention to everyone!”.
This signal draws the attention of the population to subsequent reports of what happened on all radio points, radio and television receivers.
Particular attention is paid to alerting people who work or live near potentially dangerous objects.
Information about the threat or emergency that has already occurred (accident) is transmitted primarily to children’s, educational and medical institutions, which are located in the zone of possible damage.
Upon receipt of the warning signal and information about the emergency, parents (relatives of children, carers, teachers or adults who are near children without parental supervision) are required to take all available measures recommended to the public in order to ensure the safety of children.
Such measures, depending on the situation, may be: the evacuation of children together with their parents (adults) from dangerous places, the provision of medical care, the creation of normal sanitary and hygienic conditions, the provision of good nutrition, the adoption of measures to search for parents (relatives) of lost children.
In the event of a threat to the life and health of people in connection with an accident at a nuclear power plant, the danger of chemical contamination of the area, natural disasters (floods, earthquakes, fires, etc.), evacuation is carried out, that is, removal (withdrawal, exit) to a safe area and placement there with the provision of acceptable conditions for temporary residence.
When receiving information about the threat or the occurrence of danger, you must immediately find and take with you: the identification documents of the children and their parents, money, available personal protective equipment (respirator, gauze bandage for respiratory protection, clothes and shoes adapted to protect the skin from radioactive and toxic substances), a set of outerwear and shoes, depending on the time of year and weather, the supply of food and drinking water in sealed containers and packages.
For children of preschool age, a note is inserted into the pocket or sewn to the clothes, indicating his last name, first name and patronymic, home address, as well as the last names, first names and patronymics of the parents.
On evacuation routes, it is necessary to strictly comply with all orders of the leaders, act promptly and competently by warning signals, upon arrival at the final destination, go through registration and place yourself in the place indicated by the evacuation manual.
During emergencies, the responsibility to ensure that children are not separated from their parents or carers rests primarily with their family, educational institution or institution where the children are located, local authorities and the government.
If, however, the children part with their parents (relatives), the local authorities or government are responsible for providing children with protection and care. Their responsibilities also include finding parents or relatives for the purpose of family reunification. Children who were separated from their families during emergencies cannot be considered orphans and cannot be adopted until the fate of their parents or close relatives is fully ascertained.
In crowded places, diseases spread very quickly. All refugee children or children caught in an emergency and temporarily living in difficult conditions should be vaccinated in accordance with the recommendations of the state sanitary and epidemiological surveillance authorities.
Vaccination during emergencies should be carried out using disposable syringes.
Because diseases such as measles and hepatitis spread very quickly, the sick child should be isolated from other children and examined by a health professional.
Family members, healthcare providers, and women who have the necessary knowledge and experience should encourage the mother of the newborn baby to breastfeed her baby exclusively.
When children lose loved ones as a result of a terrorist act, armed conflict, and other violence-related situations, and their familiar surroundings and places of origin remain far away, they may experience feelings of loneliness and fear.
The consequence of fear and pain is the manifestation of stress reactions. Some become self-contained, others become aggressive.
If the child does not receive proper care, his suffering may be aggravated.
Sometimes children from 3 to 6 years of age feel responsible for what happened, and this can make them feel guilty. Children of this age need support, attention and care from adults, they need constant approval.
Older children better understand the emergency nature of the situation and are to some extent more vulnerable to stressful experiences than younger children. They can even blame themselves for not being able to prevent what happened.
In order for children to feel protected, it is necessary to create familiar conditions for them as soon as possible - to involve in the life of the new community, organize school, games with peers, sports events and other forms of recreation, a constant schedule of food and sleep. If the child’s stressful reaction is delayed and becomes acute, it should be provided with qualified assistance.
- Drawing or playing with dolls and toys helps children express their feelings and adapt to stressful situations. Playing scenes from everyday life is a common and useful activity for kids helping them overcome the consequences of their experiences.
- Children should be encouraged to express everything that bothers them, to encourage self-expression, but not to force. They need listeners and the opportunity to express their experiences.
Explosive objects (gas mains, household appliances, water tanks, televisions, etc.), as well as unexploded ordnance, pose a great danger to human life and health.
The main reason is the unreasonable behavior of people, especially children and adolescents, when handling explosive objects and unexploded ordnance.
Old ammunition is very dangerous for human life and health, because as a result of exposure to moisture, chemical compounds are formed in them, which can explode even with a light touch.
Especially dangerous are anti-personnel mines, which come in various shapes, sizes and colors, are usually invisible and are triggered by pressure from the weight, tensioning the wire, simply touching or changing their angle of inclination.
Dangerous is not only the explosion itself, which affects a person by means of an instantly increasing air pressure (shock wave), but also its consequences, that is, the defeat of people by debris from houses and buildings, stones, broken glass and other objects that fly off from the shock wave.
The most dangerous explosions in residential and public buildings, as well as in crowded places.
How to act in case of a threat or in an emergency:
|Hazard type||How to act|
|Earthquake, mudflow, landslide, flood, hurricane, storm, tornado, thunderstorm, etc.||To reduce the negative consequences it is necessary: |
- disconnect electrical appliances, pull out the cable of the external antenna from the TV, close the windows, windows and do not get close to them,
- in a severe thunderstorm, be in the center of the room, away from grounded batteries, taps, and in houses with chimneys, from stoves,
in open area:
- stay dispersed (if you are in a group), put all metal objects 15-20 meters away from people, when moving - go one at a time, not in a hurry,
- get off the hill and hide in a dry pit, ditch, ravine,
- take shelter among small trees, not sit on the edge of a forest, a large clearing, under a single (standing above others) tree,
- do not touch the rocks and sheer walls, take cover 3-8 meters from them,
- to leave the reservoir, if this is not possible - to lower the mast or ground it to the water through the oar, keel, mooring,
when ball lightning appears:
- indoors - go into the next room and lie on the floor, under the bed or table,
- retreat under the protection of some kind of cover (wood, building, etc.), cover your face with your hands,
- if lightning reacts to your movement - lie down on the ground, cover your neck and head with your hands.
- Immediately turn on all communications and listen carefully to the information on the notification networks,
- carry out work on sealing residential premises: close the windows with a thick cloth, cover the cracks and holes, close the doors tightly,
- to prepare and place in a tightly closed container a supply of food and water for three days, documents, money, medicines and other necessary things,
- warn the neighbors and, if necessary, help them,
- do not leave the premises unless absolutely necessary,
- when declaring evacuation, first of all remove (take out) children and disabled people from the infection zone,
- on the street to be in gas masks, respirators, cloaks, wraps, if not, use pieces of cloth dampened with water, hats, mittens, boots, etc.,
- in a contaminated area do not undress, do not sit on the ground and do not smoke,
- take food only indoors, after thoroughly washing your hands and rinsing your mouth with a 0.5% solution of baking soda,
- in the field, you can eat only in places protected from wind and dust,
- not consume foods and water that have not passed the appropriate control,
- do not swim in open water, do not pick mushrooms, berries,
- after leaving the infection zone, remove clothing, wash eyes, nose, mouth thoroughly and, if possible, take a shower.
- in room:
- try to put out the fire on your own,
- notify neighbors and the fire department,
- if the primary efforts to extinguish the fire did not yield a result, it is necessary to leave the room in the direction opposite to the fire, along an unswacked staircase or go to the balcony
- evacuation from the balcony by the fire escape or through the neighboring apartment, if there is no fire,
- on the ground:
- when leaving the fire, move against the wind, having previously covered the head and face with a damp cloth,
- if it is impossible to leave the fire, cover with moist material and try to breathe air that is near the ground and less smoky. Cover your mouth and nose with clothing or a piece of cloth,
- on a vehicle (on a ship, on a train, on an airplane, on a subway, on public transport):
- immediately inform the guide, stewardess, captain, driver about the smell of smoke,
- during a fire, do not provoke a panic by shouting: “Fire!”, “Save yourself!” etc.,
- extinguish a small fire with a fire extinguisher and improvised means (water from toilets, mineral, sparkling water and other drinks),
- protect the airways with a wet cloth,
- evacuate from burning vehicles.
- timely read the instructions and instructions on the vehicle,
- know where emergency exits are located and how
- strictly follow the crew, driver’s commands,
- First of all, to save children and women,
- don't clutter up the aisles with things
- remove sharp objects from the table and floor,
- do not overload the upper luggage racks,
By ground transport
(in a train, bus, trolley, car, etc.):
- to put the children in the carriage, intercity bus to the safest places - the lower ones, in the direction of the shelf movement,
- on the side shelves to lie down in the direction of movement, so that under sharp braking not to break the cervical vertebrae,
- Do not stick your head out of the windows of a moving vehicle,
- fasten the belt, fitting it to your figure,
- when depressurizing the aircraft - immediately put on an oxygen mask, help children and neighbors do it,
- during an emergency landing, remove earrings, glasses and other sharp, breaking objects, take a safety pose - bow your head, rest your elbows and knees in the front seat, put soft things under your stomach and chest,
- at the command of the crew, leave the plane through the main emergency exits and run away from it to a safe distance,
By water transport:
- find out where individual means of salvation are stored, learn how to handle them,
- find out the shortest way to the boat deck,
- memorize warning signs,
- after announcing the boat alarm, take a life jacket, warm clothes, documents and the shortest way to the boat deck,
- when jumping into the water - inspect the place of splashdown, grab, pull down the lifejacket and jump at the moment of the highest rise of the water, legs down,
- set sail from a sinking ship.
- when handling gas:
- periodically check the tightness of hoses and threaded connections on pipes with soap foam,
- the gas bottle should be in a well-ventilated room or outdoors,
- do not check for gas leakage with a match flame,
- if there are young children in the family, close the gas when leaving the house with the help of a faucet located on the gas pipe.
- If there is a smell of gas, you must:
- evacuate tenants from the apartment,
- immediately close the gas tap or remove the gas bottle from the room and ventilate the room,
- do not use matches, lighters, candles, a telephone, do not smoke, do not turn on electric lighting,
- urgently call emergency gas service,
- upon detection of ammunition:
- mark (enclose) his location,
- do not pick up and touch it,
- when it detects a mine, stop and slowly go back in its tracks or freeze in place and call for help,
- no one should be allowed to the place where the ammunition is located, for which purpose they should be on duty until the authorities arrive,
- notify local authorities, police, military commissariat, operational and rescue service.
To protect yourself, you must:
- in the House:
- get to know the residents of the house,
- Pay special attention to strangers in and around the house,
- be wary of packages and letters that are suspicious,
- on the street:
- to avoid crowded places (markets, stadiums, train stations, entertainment events, etc.),
- not to approach suspicious objects left in public places,
- stop people trying to check the contents of orphan bags, bags, boxes, etc., or quickly move away from them,
- do not pick up small things found on the street (whistles, pens, cigarette cases, toys, etc.),
- when taking hostages, including hijacking an airplane, bus, etc.:
- not stand out from the mass of other people, passengers,
- при выстрелах и взрывах сесть на пол, закрыть голову руками,
- при применении слезоточивых веществ — закрыть глаза, защитить дыхательные пути мокрой тканью,
- исполнять приказы группы захвата при освобождении.
- show physical resistance and show a negative attitude towards terrorists,
- get up, take things, open bags, climb into pockets without the permission of terrorists,
- during the fighting jump up, try to run,
- to help the capture group without her order,
- rub eyes and face when using tear substances.
- take measures to save children,
- lie down and look around, choose the nearest shelter and get to it without rising to its full height,
- as soon as possible - hide in the entrance of the nearest house, underpass.