An oven is an indispensable equipment of any kitchen. And although recently people have been trying to supplant it with modern stoves and combi steamers, each catering owner is trying to purchase a high-quality oven, as he sees its indisputable advantages. By purchasing this technique, you get a multi-functional kitchen assistant who will perform the heat treatment of meat, fish and vegetable products.
This equipment is designed to create a high temperature at which baking, frying, baking, etc. occurs. Ovens have found their application in confectioneries, restaurants and canteens of large state enterprises. This indispensable product replaces several ovens at once. Therefore, to open any bakery business, ovens are simply necessary.
The functional purpose of ovens is quite diverse. They are used not only for frying food, but also for stewing, sautéing, baking and some other ways of cooking. It should be noted that even semi-finished products are processed in ovens. Therefore, the organization of the food industry without this equipment would be impossible.
Professional ovens are distinguished by the type of heat transfer that occurs between the coolant and the product. Catering facilities use cabinets with natural heat transfer and cabinets with forced heat transfer. In the first case, the products are heated by thermal study from heated surfaces. These ovens are very convenient to use when cooking several dishes, which may require varying degrees of heating. In the second case, air is distributed by a fan, which ensures uniform heating throughout the chamber. When cooking in an oven with forced heat transfer, you do not need to turn the cooked foods over, as well as change trays.
For the successful organization of the baking business, it is necessary to install professional oven cabinets, which differ from ordinary cabinets in their multifunctionality. For example, a bakery oven can be used purely for baking confectionery and bakery products, while an oven is used to prepare a wide variety of dishes.
General rules for the operation of the gas oven
Despite the variety of gas ovens, there are several general rules that must be followed so that the use of the device does not lead to its breakdown:
- Beginning of work. Just before loading the dish, you need to carefully inspect the internal space of the device, remove everything unnecessary from there. Perhaps there are pans, baking sheets and other kitchen utensils? Inside there should only be a grill stand for dishes.
- Cooking Level. This is an important step in the instructions on how to use a gas oven. In equipment, as a rule, grooves are provided in the walls into which the grill can be installed, and they are located at three levels. The lower level is intended for intensive baking, the middle one is universal for all culinary delicacies, the upper one will help to create an appetizing crust on the finished dish.
- Choosing the right baking / stewing tank. You can use ceramic pots, a special sleeve, foil or silicone, glass, cast iron, ceramic forms. They can stew meat with vegetables or cook a delicious soup. For sweet and unsweetened muffins (for example, pizza), a special baking sheet (supplied with ovens) or a variety of baking dishes are used.
For baking certain dishes (for example, soufflé, biscuit), it is important to set the desired temperature and install the ready-to-bake mass in the already heated space of the cooking cabinet. Dough for baking in the heat rises well and after baking is turned into a lush, airy treat. Interested in how to determine the temperature of the oven on gas? There are two easy ways:
- On a special scale on the unit. On the front of the modern equipment are dash-divisions or numbers with a mark on degrees Celsius. You just need to take the instructions for the device and find the data, how many degrees correspond to the symbols on the scale.
- With an oven thermometer that can measure degrees up to 300.
Another important point is how to properly light a gas oven. In devices with auto-ignition, it is necessary to turn the tap on the panel of the cooking cabinet, which is responsible for setting the temperature, to the stop. Then press the auto ignition button and hold for 15-20 seconds. After the gas in the oven is ignited, it remains to adjust the temperature and install a container with dishes inside. In simpler variations, you need to open the oven, find a small hole below, bring a pre-lit match to it and turn the tap on the stove panel.
Rules for using an electric oven
Electric ovens are equipped with an upper and lower heating element. In some units there is a grill, convection. More functional appliances are also equipped with options for steaming and defrosting any products. To operate such equipment is quite simple even for inexperienced chefs.
Brief instructions on how to use an electric oven:
- activate the device and set the required temperature mode,
- wait 15-20 minutes to allow the appliance to warm up,
- open the door of the stove and set the dish in the center,
- close the oven and set the cooking timer,
- after the beep, open the oven door and get the finished treat.
Ease of use and durability of such equipment are two components of the demand for electric ovens. With such devices, crispy pizza, fish or meat with vegetables, a sponge cake will become a real decoration for both everyday and holiday table. By the way, the dishes look great if they are not only decorated, but also placed on a beautiful dish.
3 nuances of using electric ovens:
- During cooking, you can not install the form, baking dishes on the bottom of the device. This can lead to damage to the heating elements located at the bottom of the unit. The food container is located exclusively on grilles or shelves.
- The oven can be turned off a few minutes before the end of cooking culinary delights. The residual temperature is enough to bring the dish to readiness.
- To make the dish evenly baked or stewed, it is better to use the middle shelf. Cooking vegetable, fish, meat soup is at the lowest level.
You also need to select a certain type of cookware. For electrical appliances, containers made of ceramic, refractory clay or cast iron are ideal. Metal containers, foil can not be used. This is due to the design of the electric oven - metal and containers that contain it are conductors of electricity and can cause sparks inside the device, its damage.
Oven cooking modes and rules
5 rules for cooking in an electric oven:
- At the middle level of the appliance, heating is performed from above and below, therefore it is suitable for almost any kind of food.
- For long stewing, it is worth placing the container on the bottom shelf, first setting the minimum temperature.
- It is better to make meat / fish baking and baking muffin in 2 modes: first set the heat to high, at the end - lower.
- Do not endlessly open the oven door to control cooking; this can disrupt the cooking procedure. It is better to observe through the viewing window.
- Before you start cooking, you should thoroughly study the recipe to select the desired cooking mode to get the perfect dish.
Modern models of electric ovens are equipped with useful options “in full”, with the help of which you can easily bake / stew both exotic and traditional dishes.
The main cooking modes in electrical devices:
- Upper and lower heat. Standard cooking that is ideal for baking pies or baking meat delicacies.
- Top / bottom heat + fan. It is fast cooking and allows you to cook food on 2 baking sheets at the same time.
- Ring heater + fan. Super-fast cooking on 3 pallets. In ovens from Bosch, for example, this mode is provided for making pizza.
- Grill. Designed for baking small, thinly sliced meat or fish pieces.
- Heating. A low temperature is set (50-60 ° C), you can warm up a previously cooked dish.
- Defrosting. It allows you to quickly and easily defrost meat, vegetables, berries for further cooking.
Gas ovens are somewhat inferior in functionality to their electric "brothers", but to the same extent they allow you to bake delicious dishes. Often, housewives complain that the goodies are not completely baked or there is no golden crust declared in the recipe. How to deal with this? Learn how to bake muffin and cook first / second courses in a gas oven. For baking, special forms or a complete aluminum baking sheet are used. By the way, you should not use the black pan for cooking with which the oven is equipped. It is designed to collect residual fat.
The rules for cooking in a gas oven include:
- Timewarming up. For 10-15 minutes, the maximum temperature is set, then it is adjusted to the desired one. Only after this is the dish with the dish installed in the oven.
- Center installation. The form with baking is best set exactly in the middle. So the heated air will circulate evenly around the dish.
- Level selection. Need a golden brown crust on top or bottom? Set the dish to the lower / upper level, respectively.
A little secret to getting a golden crust on pies is to add a number of degrees 5 minutes before the end of cooking.
In standard versions of gas-fired ovens, only 2 heating modes are provided and there is no fan. In devices there is a lower heat (gas heating element) and upper (gas or electric grill).
Learning how to properly adjust the modes in the cooking cabinets is a matter of time, the above tips will definitely help in this culinary. It remains to consider the last question: "What is the optimal depth of such units?"
Oven depth selection
This parameter directly affects the useful volume of the oven. Such units have dimensions from 40 to 90 cm in width, and the depth of the models is 55-60 cm. For a family of 3-4 or more people, it makes sense to choose a larger option so that the finished dish is enough for everyone (for example, the Ventolux DUBLIN depth is equal to 62 cm). A stove with a depth of 50 cm is enough for 1-2 users (for example, Ventolux NEW YORK - 53 cm).
Scopes of the oven:
- bakery products,
- warming up
- maintaining the desired temperature of the dish.
For all these purposes, developed their own recipes, technology and method of preparation, temperature and the duration of the products in the cabinets. These devices are one of the types of electrical equipment. Modern manufacturers have tried to combine several different functions in one device so that it is convenient, useful and does not take up much space in the workroom.
The oven will replace several ovens at once, which do not have some functions in cooking. The food industry in the modern world would be practically unorganized without the use of this apparatus.
Typically, the appliances are of sufficient height to make it possible to cook large pieces of meat or even whole carcasses of small animals.
Electric ovens are widely used in kindergartens and schools, where in large quantities you need to cook dishes such as casseroles and scrambled eggs. Without the use of this electrical equipment, it is simply impossible to do this efficiently without spending a lot of time and effort. Electric cabinets provide uniform baking of products. In modern products there is a defrost function, which allows you to quickly defrost food without loss of quality and vitamins.
The advantages of using such a design include:
- special taste of dishes
- low power consumption
- ease of use
- fast camera warm-up time.
Bottom line: which oven is easier to use?
Gas and electric models of cookers have their own nuances of operation, which are clearly displayed in the table
The choice is left to users who need to study the instructions in detail before using the unit. The main operating rules are described above, to use them means to ensure a long and trouble-free “life” of the equipment, to obtain excellent taste and appetizing appearance of dishes prepared in gas or electric ovens.
Gas ovens are economical, durable and easy to operate. Due to the ability to work from a gas cylinder, they are suitable for giving and a country house.
The minus of the gas stove is the explosion hazard. Before cooking, inspect the oven for gas leaks.
Let's figure out how to use a gas stove oven:
- make sure there are no kitchen utensils in the oven,
- set the grill to the level you need,
- preheat the oven: 10 minutes are enough for this,
- during cooking, do not open the oven door too often: you will break the microclimate and cooking will take longer.
If there is no thermometer in the stove, a sheet of paper will help determine the temperature: in 30 seconds at + 100 ... + 120 ℃ the sheet turns slightly yellow, at + 190 ... + 210 ℃ it turns yellow-brown, at +220 ℃ it starts to burn.
The optimal models of gas ovens in the price-quality ratio are offered by the manufacturers: Fornelli (Fornelli), Kuppersberg (Coopersberg), Bosch (Bosch), Körting (Korting), Gefest (Hephaestus), Hansa (Hansa), Gorenje (Gorenie), Electrolux (Electrolux ), Zanussi (Zanussi), Foster (Foster).
Electric ovens are multifunctional and allow cooking at high temperatures. Many models are equipped with grill, convection mode and steam.
Consider how to use the oven of an electric stove:
- make sure there’s nothing in the oven
- set the grill to the desired level,
- warm the oven before cooking: select the heating mode, set the temperature and start the timer with a margin of 10 minutes so that the cabinet has time to heat up,
- put the dish on the wire rack and close the door,
- try to open the door as little as possible during cooking,
- Do not put the dishes on the bottom of the oven - this will damage the lower heater. The dishes can only be installed on the wire rack.
Manufacturers have high-quality electric ovens of the middle price segment: Bosch (Bosch), Electrolux (Electrolux), Gorenje (Gorenje), Fornelli (Fornelli), Whirlpool (Virpul), Siemens (Siemens), Samsung (Samsung), Hotpoint (Hotpoint), Hansa (Hansa), Candy (Candy).
Features and specifications
Externally, ovens look like a metal box, which has double walls, as well as the thermal insulation located between them. This design allows the external walls to not heat up to high temperatures and makes the cabinet safe for human health. All types of ovens comply with these requirements.
Top and bottom cabinets are equipped with electric heating elements. In the first case, they are unprotected and constantly open, and in the second they are insulated with a special metal sheet. Tena allow air to be heated simultaneously from above and below, even if convection is not turned on. Usually they have 2 control switches to change the temperature of each. All cabinets have a heat-insulated door, which, with the help of special gaskets, very closely adjoins the side walls, without letting hot air out of the chamber.
Some electric cabinets, especially those needed for baking, are equipped with a steam generator, which from time to time adds steam inside the oven. It keeps the dish dry. When baking, this is very important. On the side walls are metal guides for baking sheets.
The provided temperature sensors regulate the set temperature inside the chamber. As soon as the air warms up to the desired temperature, the heaters turn off and the device notifies that the temperature has been reached by an audible signal. Это и отличает электрическую бытовую технику от газовых приборов, производство которых до сих пор остается не на последнем месте.
Современные шкафы могут иметь прозрачные дверцы, выполненные из двойного закаленного стекла. Thanks to this, you can monitor the appearance of the prepared food without opening the door, which can adversely affect the dish. All cabinets have a timer and a thermostat for adjusting programs and the temperature inside. In modern appliances, the most popular and necessary modes for preparing standard dishes are programmed. The required individual programs are set manually.
For each device there is a detailed description where you can find the instruction manual with detailed photos. If we talk about the general characteristics of some models, then they can be found in the table.
|Rated power consumption, kW||4,6||9,1||15||15||13,8|
|Maximum cabinet temperature, C||270||270||300||320||270|
|Warming up time to the maximum value, min||30||30||40||30||30|
|Overall dimensions, mm||840x897x1040||840x897x1475||850x895x1625||830x900x1930||840x897x1475|
|Baking tray size, mm||530x470||530x470||560x480x30||—||530x470|
Ovens are divided by:
- convection method
- number of sections
- material of manufacture
- outside size
- the size of the internal compartment.
By the method of convection exchange, baking cabinets with forced and natural exchange are distinguished. The first method is achieved using a special fan that accelerates the air over the entire area of the chamber. The products are covered on all sides with a golden crust.
The natural convention works on the principle of more heating at the top of the oven. In this case, the baking sheet is placed either above or below. If it is necessary to prepare several dishes at once, baking sheets with products must be periodically interchanged and deployed.
A forced convection device heats up much faster, thereby reducing energy consumption as well as overall cooking time.
Both species are widespread. But many people prefer the first type of convection exchange. According to the number of sections, ovens are divided into:
- single section or simple
- two sections
- three sections
- multi-section (up to four).
Each section may include a different number of baking sheets with dishes. A multi-chamber or three-section cabinet, for example, for baking, allows you to occupy the vertical area of the kitchen as much as possible, since the appliances are standing on top of each other.
According to the material of manufacture of the enclosure, the cabinets are divided into made of:
- food grade stainless steel
- powder coated metal.
Inside an inexpensive cabinet is usually enameled. For such a coating, only a manual cleaning method is suitable, which is performed only with soft sponges with soapy water. Abrasive substances are not allowed to be used, as this will ruin the painted surface.
In more expensive models, the coating is cleaned by itself, using the pyrolysis function. It is achieved at very high temperatures. In this case, the fat simply burns out, and the residues are removed from the bottom of the oven cabinet with a damp cloth.
In rooms where there is very little free space, the size of electrical appliances is of great importance. First you need to determine the place, and only then choose the technique itself. External dimensions are the main characteristics of cabinets. They can always be found in the instructions for use, and on the price tag in the store before buying. The internal volume and dimensions determine how many and the size of the dishes can fit there.
Internal capacity and dimensions are determined in liters. For a small home appliance, a volume of 8 to 10 liters is quite suitable. For a large family, they often choose a volume of 35-40 liters. For restaurants and cafes, where there are a lot of visitors, it is better to choose a larger device. 48 liters are quite suitable, since such a device will contain all the necessary baking sheets for cooking large dishes.
The depth and height of the devices are the same, they differ only in width dimensions. The most convenient and also practical is the width of 60 centimeters, but it can reach 120 centimeters. Such appliances are necessary only for large restaurants. By a given size, you can find equipment with various characteristics and functions.
The difference between gas and electric models
Gas ovens for baking are considered the most economical, since gas is several times cheaper than electricity. But the disadvantage is that it is very difficult to set the desired temperature inside the chamber, unlike electricity. In such devices, everything is controlled by temperature sensors. Gas directs the flow of heat from top to bottom, and with electric heating elements, heat goes both from below and from above, which also emphasizes the advantage of cabinets of this type. They are also more popular because of their convenience as well as functionality. A gas baking cabinet is usually chosen for dining rooms. Electric cabinet is more preferred by housewives.
There are some differences between baking ovens, mainly in programs. Basically, the bakery cabinet is intended only for baking.
How to choose
The quality of the dishes depends on which appliance they were cooked in. Do not rely only on the cost of the device. All the same functions can be found in an inexpensive device.
When choosing an industrial oven, you need to determine for yourself what kind of food it will be: gas or electric. In this case, you need to weigh all the advantages and disadvantages and only then make a choice. There are times when there is simply no source, then you need to build on other characteristics. If you need high performance, you need to choose a cabinet with large dimensions of the inner chamber, or a device with several sections.
Different manufacturers produce their devices with different maximum temperature thresholds. In most cases, it is 270 degrees. But some brands offer cabinets with a maximum temperature of up to 320 degrees. For industrial ovens, exactly the same characteristics are distinguished as those of home electric and gas household appliances.
The main parameters when choosing a cabinet oven:
- management method
- device service life
- additional functions,
For a small family, you should not choose large-sized bakery ovens, as they will have a lot of power, thereby absorbing a lot of electricity, which will tangibly beat the cost. An oven cabinet for the home should meet all the needs of its owners as much as possible and help to cook deliciously without spending a lot of time on it.
The industrial apparatus for the food service or dining room is of various types. Choose a production cabinet as carefully as possible. As well as household, they are traditional, gas or electric. Electrical industrial appliances are very expensive, but if used properly, they will not only last a very long time, but also pay off very quickly in production activities. In the presence of the self-cleaning function, the device will not need to be constantly washed, it will be a waste of time and energy. Whatever device the cook chooses, it is necessary to follow it very efficiently. Not only the functionality, but also the care of the equipment, the quality of the prepared dishes depends.
Now household electrical appliances are produced in large volumes, so in modern stores you can find everything, even for industrial production. Between the various functional characteristics of baking cabinets for baking, you need to choose what will help in the kitchen, create culinary masterpieces. When choosing a cabinet oven, the most important thing is to understand what exactly is needed in the kitchen. After all, choosing a faithful assistant it is important to remember that an oven for a home is purchased not for one year, but for a long time.
Upper and lower heating
The main mode for all models of ovens, it is also called: traditional, classic or static.
The simultaneous operation of the upper and lower heaters ensures even heat distribution and natural convection. The mode is suitable for baking, stuffed vegetables, roasts and for baking in open dishes. By changing levels, you can adjust the cooking process.
It is recommended for pies with wet filling, for heating ready-made dishes and creating a golden brown underneath. However, the cooking process must be observed: unfold the pan and change the levels.
The mode is suitable for cooking in dishes that do not conduct heat well (glass and aluminum forms, pots for roasting).
You can cook porridge or soup in the oven: cooking will take longer, but the taste will be saturated, as when cooking in a traditional oven.
Ring heater and fan
In advanced models, an annular heater is installed on the back of the oven, inside which a fan is located. Due to the circular shape, warm streams are distributed horizontally and quickly fill the entire oven. Dry air prevents a change in taste and mixing of aromas, so using the oven in this mode is very convenient - you can cook several dishes at different levels at once. It is important to remember: the required cooking temperature should be the same for all dishes.
The mode is considered delicate, suitable for defrosting foods and raising yeast dough, it is recommended for cooking puff pastry, drying mushrooms, fruits and herbs, as well as for sterilizing home canned food.
Ring heater, fan + lower and upper heating
This mode has several names: multifunctional, intensive, professional, fast or 3-D cooking. Often used for preheating the oven.
It is recommended to use the oven in this mode for the preparation of voluminous dishes that require deep baking with the formation of a crust, for example, for baking a pig or lamb leg. It can be used for simultaneous baking of several baking sheets of pies, as the temperature distribution occurs evenly at all levels.
Large pieces of meat in the cooking process should be periodically watered with the allocated juice - this will achieve an even crisp.
The grill differs from a simple heater in the specificity of the effect. Using infrared radiation, he directly heats the food. The grill can be used as the main mode or turned on at the final stage, when you want to give the dish an appetizing crust.
Let's figure out how to use the grill in the oven:
- preheat the oven for 3-5 minutes,
- use the upper level or lower level for cooking - it depends on the thickness of the pieces,
- grilling should be carried out directly on the grill,
- so that the fat from the meat does not burn and does not stain the bottom, and the oven is not filled with smoke and fumes, place a water tray on the lower level.
Grill and fan
To give an even crust to dishes of complex shape (goose, pig), you can supplement the grill with a fan: you get the effect of a spit, only the product will move, but air. For this mode, all dishes that are cooked on an ordinary grill are suitable, except for steaks and toasts.
As you can see, using the oven is not so difficult. New technologies offer great opportunities for culinary experiments - cook for pleasure and delight your loved ones!
Video from YouTube on the topic of the article:
She graduated from the author's physical and mathematical lyceum and art school. She received a higher economic education in the direction of "innovative management". Freelancer. Married, travels actively. He is interested in Buddhist philosophy, enjoys transerfing and loves Mediterranean cuisine.
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