There are many ways to transfer large files over the Internet, but almost all of them are limited - either by the size of the file, or by the amount of free space, or by the speed of the download.
But there is one great option - create an FTP server. Its main advantages:
- no download speed limit,
- quick file sharing (no need to configure anything, upload files and wait for them to be processed),
- the ability to download any document at any time (convenient with unstable internet).
How to configure FTP server?
The setup is very simple. To do this, you will need a program for the FTP server (or rather, a utility) called Golden FTP Server (there will be plenty of Free versions).
Have you downloaded the program? Installed? Now let's start creating. To do this, follow these instructions:
- Open the utility and click “Add”.
- In the new window, in the "Path" field, specify the folder that you want to share. In the "Name" field, you can write anything - this is the name of the folder that your friends will see. You can also put a bird in the item "Allow full access." In this case, any user will be able to upload their files to this folder, as well as edit or delete them. Click the OK button.
- Next, the program will immediately provide you with a link. Click "Copy to clipboard" and drop it to friends.
That's all. Now you know how to make an FTP server. And you can freely share files with any users.
By the way, one more thing. Shared documents can be downloaded simultaneously by several users to whom you have given a download link. Of course, the speed of the jump in this case will be divided. But if you have 100 Mbps, then this is not a problem. Just to keep you posted.
If you do not understand how to configure the FTP server, and all this is too complicated for you, then you can try other options. Fortunately, there are at least 5 more ways to transfer large files over the Internet.
How FTP protocol works
FTP (File Transfer Protocol) is a protocol for transmitting information on the Internet and local computer networks. This is a program that provides remote connection to a dedicated folder for viewing and sharing files, including large ones. Data exchange is possible from a computer to a remote server and between other FTP servers.
Data is transmitted without traffic encryption, so attackers can easily access logins and passwords. For safe file transfer, it is recommended to use a protocol with TLS protection - FTPS, encrypting data.
Own FTP server has certain advantages:
- allows you to manage the server and its resources,
- grant users different access rights,
- it does not need a static IP address.
- no speed limits
- lack of payment to the hoster for its placement,
In accordance with the complexity of the access, software is selected. To create an FTP server for private use with minimal settings, free software packages are fine.
Microsoft has added the Internet Information Services (IIS) feature in Windows 7, which shares network access to a folder dedicated to this purpose. Therefore, to create an FTP server for Windows 7, you do not need to install additional software.
FTP server setup
Some standard features that are not often used are disabled by default in Windows 7. Therefore, in order to activate them, it is necessary to perform a number of steps.
To create an FTP server on Windows 7, you must:
- Click "Start" and open the "Control Panel" section. For ease of viewing, you can select the Small Icons mode.
Control Panel in Windows 7
- Go to the "Programs and Features" section, where to select "Turn Windows features on or off."
Turn Windows features on or off
- In the list of the opened menu, it is necessary to mark the components that should be activated by putting a checkmark next to it. This is the FTP server folder, it has two items: FTP Extensibility and FTP Service, as well as the Website Management Tools folder, and the IIS Management Console in it. To start, click OK.
FTP server setup
- Now you need to again go through the "Start" in the "Control Panel".
- Find the "Administration" section and open the "IIS Manager" in this section.
- Go to the “Sites” tab, right-clicking on the name, select “Add FTP Sites” from the list.
- In a new window, you must specify the name of the future FTP server, and the path to the directory with its data. You can proceed to the next configuration step by clicking the "Next" button.
- Now server parameters are set. In the IP address field, select the one from the list. You can bind it to a specific address or make expanded access by selecting "All free". In this case, the standard port should be marked 21. If you plan to use the FTP server all the time, check the box “Start FTP site automatically”. Select the option “Without SSL”, it can be enabled later if necessary. Click Next again.
- In a new window, the authorization type is set. In the "Authentication" item, you can enable login for regular or anonymous users. Here you can configure the rights for them. Click Finish.
After the installation is completed, a new FTP server will appear in the "Sites" section.
Configure Windows Firewall
Now you must configure Windows Firewall to open ports and services.
Log in to Control Panel again, then Windows Firewall. Find the Advanced Options section.
Windows 7 Firewall
In it, select "Rules for incoming connections." It is recommended that you set passive mode for them. To do this, right-click and enable the rules “FTP Server Passive” and “FTP Server (incoming traffic)”. In the same way, for outgoing connections, enable the FTP-Server rule in the corresponding section.
Enable FTP Server Passive and FTP Server Rules
For users to access the server, they must be connected.
- In the "Control Panel" tab, open the "Administration" folder.
- Find the "Computer Management" section, then go to the "Local Users" folder. By right-clicking on the “Groups” line, select the “Create Group” function. In the new window indicate the name and a short description of the group, click "Create".
- Now you can connect users to the created group. In the "Local Users" folder, right-click on the "Users" line and select "New" from the list of menus. Fill in the fields by entering the name and password, here you should set the checkbox to prohibit changing the password.
- To connect a user, right-click on his account and select “Properties” from the menu list, then the “Membership in groups” tab and the “Add” button. Find the created group, add and click OK. This procedure must be performed for all server users.
- At the next stage, the access rights of the group users to the working directory are determined. To do this, go to the "Site" directory, right-click on the name and open "Properties". Next - the "Security" tab, in the "Change" section, specify the name of the group and click OK. Then you need to configure the rights for users.
- Enter the “IIS Manager” by right-clicking on the line “FTP authorization rules”, add an allow rule. You can allow users to write and delete data, or you can only read.
Installation and configuration of the server is completed. However, now you need to know how to access the FTP server.
Standard Windows features make this easy. It is enough to open the My Computer folder, then in the address bar specify the path to the server.
Another way is to create a FTP connection shortcut on the computer desktop.
To do this, open the "Control Panel", right-click the "Network Places" section. In the tasks, select “Add a new element to the network environment”, then click on “Choose another network location” and “Next”. Now a shortcut will appear in the "Network Placement" section, which you just need to drag and drop onto the desktop.
As you can see, it’s useful to know how to configure the FTP server on Windows to make data exchange between users convenient and unlimited.
What is the clipboard
Clipboard - This is a function of the operating system (not just Windows), which allows you to temporarily store a specific piece of data (or even a whole file) in a specially allocated area of RAM. At the same time, if the file size is larger than the RAM on the computer, then the swap file is used as an additional temporary storage (if it is active).
Put any information on the clipboard, previously highlighting her, you can operations copy or cutting out . In this case, copying does not affect the original, placing only a copy in the buffer, and cutting performs the function of moving the original, deleting it. You can get the data from the clipboard using the command insertion . All of the above commands can be called in several ways:
- Using the context menu . Select the objects to be copied and right-click on them. In the menu that opens, you can select the items "Copy" and "Cut" or "Paste".
- Using the Edit Menu . Most Windows programs have a special menu bar at the top. On this line, as a rule, there is a section "Edit" that contains the commands we need.
- Using hotkeys . The fastest way to interact with the clipboard is to use keyboard shortcuts:
- CTRL + X (SHIFT + DEL) - "Cut",
- CTRL + C (CTRL + Insert) - "Copy",
- CTRL + V (SHIFT + Insert) - "Paste".
Another feature of the clipboard is that it can store the same copied object in several formats at once and gives the program that requested it the format that is either mapped to the program by default, or has the highest priority and information content.
We give the simplest example. Let's say we copied a line of some formatted text from a site. If we paste this text into a word processor, such as Microsoft Office Word or OpenOffice Writer, then we will get its original copy while preserving all the formatting features (bold text, line spacing, etc.).
If you paste the same fragment of text into the text editor of the Notepad class, the text itself will be saved, but there will be no formatting, because Notepad does not support formatting and will request the unformatted version from the clipboard. Finally, if you try to paste our text into some graphic editors, they will either not insert anything at all, or they will return our inscription to us in rasterized form!
Thus, we see that the simple, at first glance, well-known function of the system is not so simple, if you delve deeper! Therefore, let's get a little deeper :)
Clipboard Features in Different Versions of Windows
In Windows 2000 and XP, there was a way to view and manage clipboard content. It was a utility called "Sharing Folder". It was launched using the executable file at the address C: Windows System32 clipbrd.exe (WIN + R - clipbrd.exe - ENTER):
This utility allowed not only viewing what is currently in the buffer, but also making it possible to save data to a file (CLP format), restore it from a previously saved file, clear the buffer, and even change the data format for insertion (see the "View" menu "in the screenshot above).
For some reason, the utility has been removed from future versions of Windows (although, if desired, you can, and the program will work even on Windows 10). Instead, only a small console application is left at C: Windows System32 clip.exe. You cannot run it directly, but you can call it from the Command Prompt (WIN + R - cmd - ENTER):
A little help on the "clip" command (or "clip.exe") will show us that the command has no parameters. It allows you to redirect the contents of the buffer to a file (usually in TXT format) or read it from a previously created file by indicating the direction of copying using a triangular bracket (clip> file - write to file or clip WINDOWS folder -> system32 folder -> clipbrd.exe. And if you opened it, you would have found in it that text or picture (or something else) that you copied.
As for the Windows 7 and Vista systems, there is already no clipbrd.exe file, there is a file there clip.exe and if you try to open it, then you will not succeed. Although when you hover over a given file with the mouse, an explanatory window with a description will be displayed, and it will say “Clip - copy data to the clipboard”. This file is responsible for the clipboard in Windows 7 and Vista, but there is no access to it.
You can of course copy the clipbrd.exe file to the system32 folder of Windows 7 and Vista systems, there are many instructions on the Internet, but the question is why?
In many articles about the clipboard, something is written like - in Windows XP there was this archie important function, but for some reason the developers removed it. The question is to those who threw various complaints about this in the comments - why would a beginner need this feature? The question, for sure, has led many "wise men" into a stupor, because the answer is likely to be unequivocal - there is no need. In the end, if I answered the question of where the clipboard is located, in the same way, I would confuse people even more, and instead of answering they would have a mess in my head. However, if you suddenly, for any reason, need to take previous entries from the clipboard, then this setting is in the Punto Switcher program, you can read more about it in this article -
Some novice users may ask - why didn’t you immediately tell us that in Windows XP, buffer Can I "feel"? The answer, I said, and more than once - for novice users, do not once again climb into the Windows file, because there is everything and the entire operating system. God forbid, you decide to “edit” something, or accidentally delete something “superfluous”, then the entire performance of the system may be impaired. So as soon as you look at this clipbrd.exe file itself, immediately leave it so as not to do things that, most often, happen by chance.
Well, that’s all, I hope this article will be useful to you. Good luck to everyone, bye!
What is an FTP server?
& nbsp & nbsp The acronym FTP comes from English F ile T ransfer Rotocol (file transfer protocol) is an application-level protocol for exchanging files using the TCP / IP transport protocol between two computers, an FTP client and an FTP server. This is one of the oldest, and still a widely used protocol.
FTP protocol is designed to solve the following tasks:
access to files and directories on remote hosts
ensuring client independence on the file system type of the remote computer
reliable data transmission
use of resources of a remote system.
FTP protocol supports two connection channels at once - one for transmitting commands and the results of their execution, the other for data exchange. At standard FTP settings, the server uses TCP port 21 to organize the channel for transmitting and receiving commands and TCP port 20 for organizing the channel for receiving / transmitting data.
The FTP server expects a connection from FTP clients to TCP port 21 and, after establishing a connection, receives and processes FTP commands, which are plain text strings. Commands determine the connection parameters, the type of data transferred, and actions with respect to files and directories. After agreeing on the transmission parameters, one of the participants in the exchange becomes in passive mode, waiting for incoming connections for the data exchange channel, and the second establishes a connection to this port and starts the transfer. Upon completion of the transfer, the data connection is closed, but the control connection remains open, allowing you to continue the FTP session and create a new data session.
. FTP can be used not only to transfer data between a client and a server, but also between two servers. In this case, the FTP client establishes a control connection with both FTP servers, puts one of them into passive mode, and the second into active mode, creating a data transfer channel between them.
FTP client is a program that connects to an FTP server and performs the necessary operations to view the contents of server directories, receive, transfer and delete files or folders. As such a program, you can use a regular browser, operating system components or specially designed software products, such as the popular Download Master download manager or the multifunctional free FileZilla FTP Client.
The FTP protocol was developed back in those days when the client and server interacted directly, without any intermediate conversions of TCP packets, and in standard mode suggests the possibility of creating a TCP connection not only at the initiative of the client, but also at the initiative of the server from TCP port 20 on TCP - the client port, whose number is transmitted in the process of creating a data transfer session.
The realities of today are such that such a TCP connection from server to client in the vast majority of cases is impossible, or very difficult to implement due to the fact that in most cases, a technology with network address translation NAT (Network Address Translation) is used to connect to the Internet , когда клиент не имеет сетевого интерфейса, доступного для создания прямого TCP- соединения из Интернет. Типовая схема стандартного подключения к Интернет выглядит следующим образом:
Подключение к Интернет выполняется через специальное устройство - Router ( маршрутизатор с функцией NAT ), имеющее, как минимум два сетевых порта - один подключенный к сети провайдера, имеющий сетевой интерфейс с маршрутизируемым IP-адресом ( так называемый, "белый IP" ), например 22.214.171.124, и порт с сетевым интерфейсом для подключения устройств локальной сети с приватным, немаршрутизируемым IP-адресом, например 192.168.1.1 ( "серый IP" ). При создании соединений от сетевых устройств локальной сети к внешним сетевым узлам, IP-пакеты направляются на маршрутизатор, который выполняет трансляцию адресов и портов таким образом, чтобы, адресом отправителя стал его белый IP-адрес . Результаты трансляции сохраняются и при получении ответного пакета, выполняется обратное преобразование адреса. Таким образом, маршрутизатор обеспечивает пересылку TCP/IP - пакетов от любых устройств локальной сети во внешние сети и обратную пересылку полученных ответных пакетов. Но в тех случаях, когда на вход сетевого интерфейса, подключенного к сети провайдера, принимается пакет, который не имеет отношения к ответным TCP-пакетам, возможны следующие варианты реакции программного обеспечения маршрутизатора:
- the packet is ignored because there is no network service that could handle it.
- the packet is received and processed by the network service of the router itself, if such a service exists and is waiting for an outgoing connection ("listening") to the port whose number is indicated in the received packet.
- the packet is sent to the server on the local network, waiting for this type of incoming connection in accordance with the port mapping rules specified by the router settings.
Therefore, at present, the so-called "passive mode" has become the main mode of operation via FTP, in which TCP connections are made only from the client to the server’s TCP port. Active mode is used in cases where there is the possibility of TCP - connection from the server to the client ports, for example, when they are on the same local network. FTP connection mode selection is performed by special commands:
PASV - the client sends a command to perform data exchange in passive mode. The server will return the address and port to which you need to connect in order to receive or transmit data. An example of an FTP session fragment with passive mode setting:
PASSV - command to switch to passive mode transmitted by FTP - client to FTP server
227 Entering Passive Mode (212,248,22,144,195,89) is the response of the FTP server, where 227 is the response code, a text message about the transition to passive mode and in parentheses the IP address and port number that will be used to create the data transfer channel. The address and port number are displayed as decimal numbers, separated by a comma. The first 4 numbers is the IP address (126.96.36.199), the remaining 2 numbers specify the port number, which is calculated by the formula - the first number is multiplied by 256 and the second number is added to the result, in this example, the port number is 195 * 256 +89 = 50017
PORT client IP address port number - the client sends a command to organize a session in active mode. The IP address and port number are set in the same format as in the previous example, for example, PORT 188.8.131.52,195,89. To organize data transfer, the server itself connects to the client on the specified port.
Install and configure FileZilla FTP Server.
Download the FileZilla Server installation package for your version of the operating system on the SourceForge project page
Server installation is performed in the standard way, except for the item with the choice of settings for the FileZilla Server Interface server control panel:
FileZilla Server Interface is the main server management tool through which all necessary settings are made. By default, the control panel works on a loopback interface without password access. If necessary, for example, if remote control of the FTP server is required, these settings can be changed.
After the installation is completed, a prompt window opens to connect to the server:
After entering the IP address, port number and password (if you specified them during the installation), the FileZilla Server control panel opens:
At the top of the window is the main menu and buttons on the control panel. Below are two areas - server information messages and statistical information. Overall, the FileZilla Servver FTP control panel is fairly simple and easy to use. The main menu items:
File - FTP server control panel operating modes. Contains subitems
- Connect to Server - connect to the server
- Disconnect - disconnect from the server
- Quit - shutdown the control panel.
Server - FTP server management. It contains the subitems:
- Active - start / stop the FTP server. When checked, the FTP server is started; when unchecked, it is stopped.
- Lock - block / allow connections to the server. When checked, new connections to the server are prohibited.
Edit - edit settings. Sub Items:
- Settings - basic server settings.
- Users - FTP server user settings
- Groups - settings of user groups.
As an example, we will configure the server for the following conditions:
the server is located behind NAT, has a private IP address, but must be accessible from the Internet, supports passive mode and uses non-standard TCP ports. Using non-standard ports can reduce the likelihood of hacker attacks, and in addition, some providers use traffic filtering and block the standard 20 and 21 ports.
users have the ability to download from the server, upload to the server, delete and rename files and folders.
if you use a dynamic IP address, you must ensure that the server is accessible by DNS name.
the server will operate on a workstation in the environment of Windows 7 / Windows 8.
In other words, you need to create an FTP server accessible from the Internet to exchange files between users, of course, for free. It is quite understandable that in addition to creating the necessary configuration of the FTP server itself, you will need to change some router settings, Windows firewall settings, and solve the problem of a dynamic IP address so that the server is accessible by name, regardless of changing IP address.
Solving the dynamic IP address problem.
& nbsp & nbsp This problem does not need to be resolved in cases when a static IP address is used when connecting to the Internet, or dynamic, but in accordance with the settings of the provider, it is almost always the same. Otherwise, you can use a technology called Dynamic DNS (DDNS). This technology allows for almost real-time updating of information about the IP address on the DNS server, and access to the router (and the services behind it) by the registered name, without paying attention to the change in dynamic IP.
To implement this technology for free, you will need to register on some dynamic DNS service and install client software to update the DNS record in case of a change in the corresponding IP address. Dynamic DNS support is usually carried out by manufacturers of network equipment (D-Link, Zyxel, etc.), some hosting and specialized companies, such as the well-known DynDNS. However, after in the second half of 2014, all the services that were provided to registered users for free for non-commercial use became paid, the most popular solution, perhaps, was the use of dynamic DNS based on the No-IP.org service, which is free provides support services for 2 nodes with dynamic IP. To use the service for free, you will need to register and periodically (approximately 1 time per month) visit the site to update information about the nodes used with dynamic IP. If you skip updating the node data, the service is suspended, and accordingly, it will become impossible to connect to the node by name. With paid use of the service, an update is not required.
& nbsp & nbsp Almost all modern routers (modems) have built-in support for a dynamic DNS client. Its setup is usually very simple - fill in the fields with username and password, as well as with the host name obtained during registration on the DDNS service. Example for Zyxel P660RU2
& nbsp & nbsp Using the DDNS client integrated in the router / modem is preferable to the DNS data update utility running in the OS environment, because it allows you to implement additional features, such as controlling the router via the Internet when the computer is turned off and remotely turning on the power of computers using NAT technology Wake On Lan.
In those cases where it is not possible to use the built-in DDNS client, you will have to do with application software - a dynamic DNS support client program. Such a program periodically connects to a server that supports a registered domain name associated with a router through which it is connected to the Internet, and calls the IP update procedure when it changes. The server settings are made in such a way that the DNS name and IP address of the Internet connection are compared in a very short time, and the dynamic nature of the address has almost no effect on the health of the services associated with the DNS name.
The procedure is as follows:
We go to the No-IP.org website. To work with an existing or new account, use the "Sign In" button (in the upper right part of the page).
In fact, you only need to enter the selected host name, in this case myhost8.ddns.net. The remaining parameters do not need to be changed. Then you need to download and install special software - Dynamic Update Client (DUC), a link to which is located on the main page of the site. After the installation of DUC is completed, it will be launched and an authorization window will open, where you need to enter the username or E-mail and password received during registration on the site no-ip.org. Then click the Edit Hosta button and check the box next to the previously created host name (myhost8.ddns.net). Now, the “white IP address” of your Internet connection will constantly correspond to the selected host name. If you encounter problems updating the IP address, check if the network activity of the DUC client is blocked by the firewall.
FTP server setup
& nbsp & nbsp Using non-standard port numbers for an FTP server is not necessary at all if the provider does not use traffic filtering, or you are not interested in scanning ports for vulnerabilities and password attempts. In this article, using an FTP server with non-standard TCP ports is presented as one of the possible options.
FileZilla Server settings are made through the menu "Edit" - "Settings"
The General Settings window is intended for general FTP server settings.
In the "Listen on this port" field, you can specify the port number for incoming TCP connections. By default, this field is set to 21, and to use a non-standard number, you must specify the selected value, for example - 12321. Using a non-standard TCP port has some inconvenience, since it requires a mandatory indication of its value when creating a session:
ftp://myhost8.ddns.net - view link for the case using standard port numbers.
ftp://myhost8.ddns.net:12321 - view link for the case using port number 12321.
If you plan to use the server both with access from the Internet and on the local network, it makes sense to leave the standard value 21, and use a non-standard port number for connections from the Internet by setting up the forwarding of packets received on port 12321 of the router to port 21 of the FTP server in local area network. With this setting, you do not need to specify the port number for FTP sessions inside the LAN.
Other parameters are intended for tuning performance and timeouts of sessions. They can be left unchanged. The remaining sections of the general settings can also be left by default:
Welcome Message - text that is sent to the client when connected.
IP Binding - on which network interface will client connections be expected. By default - on any, but you can specify a specific one, for example - 192.168.1.3.
IP Filter - configure client IP filtering rules. By default - connections for any IP are allowed.
The Passive mode settings section is used for FTP passive mode settings and will require changing almost all the default parameters.
The port numbers that will be used to transmit data in passive mode must be set manually, because you will need to configure the router to redirect them to the network interface that the server listens to. Therefore, you need to check the permission of the "Use custom port range" mode and set the range - for example, from 50,000 to 50020. The number of ports listened by the server determines the limit on the number of simultaneous data transfer sessions.
The IPv4 specific subsection defines the IP address that the server will send in response to a PASV command. In this case, this should not be our own IP server 192.168.1.3, but the “white IP” of our Internet connection. Therefore, you must set the "Use the following IP" mode and instead of the IP address, enter the name obtained during registration on the dynamic DNS service - myhost8.ddns.net. Alternatively, you can use the mode of determining the external IP address using the FileZilla project by enabling. "Retrieve external IP Address from:". This option can be selected in cases where it is not possible to use the dynamic DNS tool. If you intend to use an FTP server on your local network, you must set the mode to "Don't use external IP for local connections" (do not use an external IP address for connections within the local network)
The remaining server settings can be left unchanged or, if necessary, performed later: Security settings - security settings. By default - connections that can be used to implement DDoS attacks are prohibited
Miscellaneous - settings for buffer sizes and other parameters of logs and some FTP commands.
Admin Interface settings - server control panel settings. You can specify the network interface, the listening port number, IP addresses from which it is allowed to connect to the control panel and password.
Logging - server event log settings. By default, writing to a file is not performed.
Speed Limit - settings for limiting the data transfer speed. The default is unlimited.
Filetransfer compression - settings for file compression during transfer. By default, no compression.
SSL / TLS settings enable encryption of the transmitted data. By default, no encryption.
Autoban - enable automatic blocking of users who select a password to connect. By default, auto-lock is turned off.
Configure port forwarding and firewall
In order for the FTP server to be accessible from the Internet, it is necessary to configure the router so that incoming connections that come to certain TCP ports on the external interface are redirected to the TCP ports listened to by the FTP server on the internal network. For different models of routers, the settings may differ in terminology, but their meaning is the same - a TCP packet with a specific port number received on an external (WAN) interface should be sent to the local network to the desired IP address and port. Example of D-Link DIR-320NRU router settings for port forwarding used for passive FTP mode:
Packets received on the white IP interface and having port numbers in the range 50000-50020 will be redirected to the IP address specified by the Internal IP field (in our case, 192.168.1.3). A redirection is created in the same way for port 50021 if you changed the standard port number, or to port 21 of the FTP server if you left it unchanged.
After applying these settings, the FTP server will be available at the URL ftp://myhost8.ddns.net/100021 or, for connection within the local network:
ftp://192.168.1.3 - if you did not change the standard port number (21) in the FTP server settings.
ftp://192.168.1.3ל0021 - if a non-standard port number is used.
Instead of an IP address, you can use the computer name if it can be resolved to an IP address
If the connection to the FTP server does not occur, then there may be a problem with the firewall blocking the connections necessary for the created FTP server to work. If you use the built-in Windows firewall, you must add a rule that allows network activity for the "FileZilla FTP server" service. If you are using a third-party firewall or anti-virus with traffic filtering, you must create the appropriate rule using the available configuration tools to allow network connections. There are options when settings are made to allow any network activity of a particular program, or to resolve selected addresses and ports that apply to all programs.
Diagnostics is best started on the FTP server itself. As a diagnostic tool, you can use the standard telnet client (telnet.exe utility). All firewalls do not block connections on the loopback interface and to check the server settings are correct, you can connect to it by entering the command:
telnet localhost 21 - if using a standard port number.
telnet localhost 50021 - if the standard port number has been changed.
When this command is executed, it connects to the FTP server via the loopback interface and the Welcome message should be displayed in the telnet window. If this does not happen, the server may have stopped, there is a port conflict, or port 21 (50021) is not listening. For diagnostics, you can use the netstat command:
Command line options mean:
n - use numeric port numbers and IP addresses
a - display all connections and listening ports
b - display the names of programs involved in creating connections.
Example of displayed results of command execution:
Name & nbsp & nbsp Local address & nbsp & nbsp External address & nbsp & nbsp Status
TCP & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp LISTENING
TCP & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp LISTENING
В колонке Локальный адрес имеется значение 0.0.0.0:21 , которое говорит о том, что программа с именем FileZilla Server.exe слушает ( состояние LISTENING ) TCP порт с номером 21 на всех сетевых интерфейсах. Если в настройках FTP-сервера был указан конкретный интерфейс и другой номер порта, то это значение будет содержать IP:порт , например – 192.168.1.3:50021
Для вывода результатов в постраничном режиме, можно воспользоваться командой:
netstat -nab | more
Или использовать поиск результатов по номеру порта: netstat -nab | find ":21"
Если сервер недоступен на непетлевом интерфейсе , и доступен на петлевом - нужно разбираться с настройками брандмауэра.
Настройка пользователей и групп.
Настройка пользователей и групп выполняется через меню "Edit" - "Users" ( "Groups" ). Группы создавать необязательно, но иногда удобно, для тех случаев, когда имеется большое количество пользователей, и их права по отношению к FTP-серверу различаются. Настройки и групп и пользователей практически идентичны:
В данном примере отображен результат добавления пользователя FTP-сервера с именем user1 имеющего полные права на запись, чтение, удаление и слияние файлов, а также на просмотр содержимого, удаление и создание подкаталогов в каталоге C:ftppublic
На странице General выполняется добавление, удаление и изменение свойств пользователей.
На странице Shared Folders выполняются настройки, определяющие перечень каталогов файловой системы, которые будут использоваться FTP-сервером для предоставления доступа к ним по протоколу FTP. Каждому пользователю или группе пользователей может предоставлен свой каталог с определенными правами по отношению к его содержимому.
On the Speed limits page, you can set limits on the speed of data exchange.
On the IP Filter page, you can specify filtering rules for the user's IP address, specifying the addresses from which it is forbidden or allowed to connect to the server.
List of basic FTP commands
ABOR - Abort File Transfer
CDUP - Change directory to parent.
CWD - Change the current directory.
DELE - Delete the file (DELE filename).
HELP - Displays a list of commands received by the server.
LIST - Returns a list of directory files. The list is transmitted via a data connection (port 20).
MDTM - Returns the file modification time.
MKD - Create a directory.
NLST - Returns a list of directory files in a shorter format than LIST. The list is transmitted via a data connection (port 20).
NOOP - Empty operation
PASV - Enter passive mode. The server will return the address and port to which you need to connect to collect data. Transmission will begin when RETR, LIST, etc. are entered.
PORT - Enter active mode. For example, PORT 12,34,45,56,78,89. Unlike passive mode for data transfer, the server itself connects to the client.
PWD - Returns the current server directory.
QUIT - Disconnect
REIN - Reinitialize a Connection
RETR - Download file. There must be a PASV or PORT command before RETR.
RMD - Delete Directory
RNFR and RNTO - Rename a file. RNFR - what to rename, RNTO - what.
SIZE - Returns the file size
STOR - Upload a file to the server. There must be a PASV or PORT command before STOR.
SYST - Returns the type of system (UNIX, WIN,)
TYPE - Set file transfer type (A- ASCII text, I - binary)
USER - Username for server login
The FTP client connects to the server with the username user1, an empty password, and downloads a file called cpu-v. The messages of the FTP server are highlighted in red, and the FTP client in blue. The exchange of directives and parameters may vary slightly for different versions of the FTP client software and the FTP server.
After connecting, the server transfers information about itself to the client:
220-FileZilla Server version 0.9.45 beta
220-written by Tim Kosse ([email protected])
220 Please visit http://sourceforge.net/projects/filezilla/
Client passes username:
The server asks for the password:
331 Password required for user1
The client sends an empty password:
The server verifies the user account and reports the start of the session:
230 logged on
The client requests the type of operating system on the server:
The server reports that the Unix type emulated by the Filezilla server is:
215 UNIX emulated by FileZilla
The client requests a list of parameters supported by the server:
The server responds with a list of supported parameters:
MLST type *, size *, modify *,
The client requests the current server directory:
The server reports that the current directory is the root ("/"):
257 "/" is current directory.
The client reports that it will transmit binary data:
The server confirms the type of data transferred:
200 Type set to I
The client reports that it will use passive FTP mode:
The server reports the transition to passive mode and transmits the IP and port for passive FTP mode.
227 Entering Passive Mode (212,248,22,114,195,97)
The client requests the reception of a file named cpu-v from the current server directory
The server reports the start of data transfer:
150 Opening data channel for file download from server of "/ cpu-v"
Upon completion, the server reports a successful transfer:
226 Successfully transferred "/ cpu-v"
In conclusion, I add that the Filezilla project includes not only the development and support of a high-quality free FTP server, but also the popular free FTP client
Install and configure Filezilla FTP Client article with a brief description of the free FTP client for Linux, Mac OS and Windows. This FTP client supports many applied data transfer protocols - FTP, FTP over SSL / TLS (FTPS), SSH File Transfer Protocol (SFTP), HTTP, SOCKS and FTP-Proxy. In other words, Filezilla FTP Client is a universal software for receiving and transferring files using all modern application protocols between nodes on various platforms.
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