Useful Tips

Chords for piano and keyboard: 15 main types

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Tablature or simply short tabs are a very convenient means of recording parts of string fret instruments. A sort of alternative to standard musical notation. The beauty of tablatures is that it is not necessary to know the notes. And even a complete beginner in music will be able to quite easily figure out what and how to play. Which of course cannot be said about notes with these obscure “squiggles and dots”.

As a rule, tablatures are used for guitar music and most often beginner guitarists use them. Hearing is not developed, but you want to play. The guitar can be tuned in any string and with any number of strings. Tablature files for guitars can be written just with a regular text file, or they can be a file for the editor. There are several, but the most popular is Guitarprothat we’ll talk about here.

Highlights

Tablature file consists of horizontal lines that indicate the strings, and vertical, which indicate measures. The topmost line is the first string (the thinnest on the guitar), and the lowest is the thickest string. That is, as it were, the other way around. It’s easy to remember. Taba looks like you're looking at a fretboard when you play the guitar.

Sometimes, to the left of the lines are written notation strings. If there are no string names and the guitar string is not specified, then it is considered that the tab is recorded for the standard string E (Mi).

The numbers on the lines indicate the number of the fret on which to hold the string. If the number zero is indicated, an open string sounds. If the numbers are written on several horizontal lines strictly under each other, then they must be played simultaneously. So, for example, record chords. Chord Em:

In Guitar Pro tablature you can show tabs and with musical notation. This is very convenient, because in it, the rhythm of the work is immediately visible. In tabs, of course, you can also indicate the duration of notes, but this is not always done.

In addition to these basic things, you can also record various guitar playing techniques in the tablature. Consider the most commonly used.

The most common chords for piano and keyboard instruments with diagrams, explanations and sound examples.

Knowing the structure of triads and their "capture" on the piano keyboard (as well as any other keyboard instrument) is useful for any musician. Such information is useful not only for performing or composing music, but also during active work with projects in a workstation in Piano Roll.

Today we decided to talk about basic things that somehow remain beyond the knowledge of ordinary musicians. Below are the most popular chords in modern music (regardless of the type of instrument) for piano and keyboard instruments.

As the tonic (base), the Do sound is used, although each of the chords is transposed into any key. Triads are accompanied by a chord pattern on the piano keyboard with sounds. Septaccords and chords with superstructures are accompanied by schemes only for major chords, since to build minor chords it is enough to use the corresponding scheme and add the necessary sounds to it.

Main chords

The chord consists of three sounds:

  • To (C) - the main tone of the chord (tonic),
  • Mi (E) - big third (III stage),
  • Salt (G) is the pure fifth (V stage).
https://samesound.ru/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/C.mp3

The chord consists of three sounds:

  • To (C) - the main tone of the chord (tonic),
  • E flat (Eb) - minor third (lowered III stage),
  • Salt (G) is the pure fifth (V stage).
https://samesound.ru/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/Cm.mp3

Delayed Chords

A chord with delay is a triad or a seventh chord in which the third step (III) is replaced by the second (II) or fourth (IV) step. Chords for pianos and keyboards with delay are no different from similar chords for other instruments.

A characteristic feature of sus-chords is the fact that, due to the absence of a third in the composition of a triad, such a chord cannot be unambiguously attributed to either major or minor fret. However, in the context of a musical work, their belonging to one of two modes can be implied.

Hammer-on and Pull-off (Hammer and Pool)

Designated as legato in musical notation.

In text format, the hammer is indicated by the letter h, and the pool letter p. They are placed between the notes, which are played legato.

Bend (suspender, bend)

Bends are indicated by an arrow to the top and the number of how many tones to pull is indicated. Full - full band per tone. In other cases, the number of halftones is written, for example, 1/2 or 3/4.

In text format, the band is indicated by the letter b.

Bend-Release

Bend release is indicated by an up arrow (bend) and a down arrow (release). The numbers indicate the number of how many tones to pull.

In text format, the release is indicated by the letter r.

It is indicated by a wave drawn above a note that is played with vibrato.

In a text form draw a tilde (

Left Hand Muffling (Dead Notes)

Indicated by a cross or letter x.

Natural flageolettes indicate Harm, and artificial or mediator P.H.

Notes extracted by tapping are indicated by the letter T above them.

Rhythmic symbols in the tablature

Sometimes, especially not lazy people, they can even draw the rhythmic component of a song in a tab. In the tablature, as well as in the musical notation, you can specify the measure size, tempo and number of measures. But what about the durations of notes and pauses? It turns out that there is a solution for this.

The time signature, tempo and measure numbers in tabs are indicated as well as in musical notation.

Duration of notes and pauses

In music, duration is the conditional duration of a note depending on the selected tempo of the work. Read more about this in the article Fundamentals of Music Theory for Full Zeros (Part 1).

In a musical notation, the duration of a note can be judged by how it is drawn. But what about the tabs? After all, we only have numbers and lines? In fact, everything is simple. Draw the bottom lines and points, respectively, the duration of notes and pauses. For clarity, see the figure below:

If you turn off the musical notation in Guitar Pro, then these lines indicating the rhythm will automatically be added to the tabs.

Here, in principle, are the basic designations of the most popular guitar tricks in tabs. Knowing them, you can easily read any tablature and even make your own!

How to read sheet music

The notes for drum, violin, piano and guitar differ in particulars, but they have a common basis. To read them, you need to master the basic concepts: note, key, musical staff, key sign, rhythm. And then the musical alphabet will become understandable and accessible, like a familiar book alphabet.

The language of notes is thousands of years old, and during this time it has undergone many changes. Musical notation in our usual form has existed for more than 300 years, and, with apparent external simplicity, it is not easy to comprehend. To learn how to read music, you have to take time and be patient. And if the plans are not limited to amateur interest, but are related to further professional development of music, it is best to do this under the guidance of a specialist in a room under a rehearsal base (there are plenty of them in Moscow) in order to immediately develop skills.

Where to start mastering the musical alphabet?

There are no universal techniques equally effective for everyone: the mindset, the presence of hearing, and even temperament affect the nature of perception. Note that the “momentary” techniques designed to teach you how to read music do not exist. Science is quite complex, and it all starts with the basics, namely, remembering the fundamental principles and concepts of musical literacy:

  • Notation camp - parallel lines located at a certain distance from each other, familiar to almost everyone since childhood. They are numbered, and the countdown begins at the bottom.
  • The treble clef is essentially the starting point for all voices, as well as high register instruments. It is located on the second line of the camp and denotes the "salt" of the first octave. On the other lines are the designations E G B D F - mi, salt, si, re, fa. Between the lines are fa, la, si, mi - F A C E. Memorization is facilitated by mnemonic clues: “F A C E has changed in the face” (in English, face means “face”) and so on. The key allows you to read notes for the violin with confidence, like a newspaper page.
  • But for the bass guitar, trombone and other "representatives" of the lower register, the bass key is used. It is placed on the fourth line of the camp and stands for the “fa” of the small octave. Without it, it’s difficult to master the notes for the piano. How to read a vocal score for a low voice, also tells the bass clef. Five lines carry designations for the sounds of salt, si, re, fa, la - G B D F A. Between the lines are A C E G - la, do, mi, salt.
  • Note elements are a collection of certain characters. The head is an empty or filled oval and indicates which note the performer needs to play. A vertical thin line is connected with this element - calm, which can be directed up or down, which is not displayed at all on the “quality” of a note, but serves for the convenience of working with a stave. The end of the calm is crowned by a flag, always directed to the right. The combination of all three elements forms information for the musician about the duration of the note and the beginning of its sound.

In addition, you will have to master the intricacies of rhythm and meter, delve into leagues and points, learn the scale in C major. And if at these stages the desire to get closer to the music does not diminish, you can safely rent a room for a rehearsal base in Moscow (inexpensively and professionally - focus on a combination of these factors) and continue to trample the path into the world of art.

Designations for drums ↑

Let us now dwell on the features of tabs for individual instruments. It may seem to a beginner that disassembling notes for drums is like reading an encrypted note. This is because the drum tablature, in addition to keys, graphic images of sounds and key signs, contains special notation. They indicate to the performer which drum to play and how to beat it. For example, the symbol BD is a “barrel” (bass drum), HH is a hi-hat (cymbals with a rack), SD is a snare drum, RC and CC are cymbals without a rack.

The strength of the impact is denoted as follows: o - normal blow, O - strong, d - double and so on. There are signs for cymbals: x - hit with normal force, X - hit hard, # - hit and catch the plate. In addition to specific symbols, the tablature contains explanations for the size of the composition, and each drummer reading it knows what to do at any given time.

Guitar tab ↑

To figure out how to read notes for a guitar, you need to remember an important rule: the guitar tab tells the performer how to put his fingers, and not which sounds to extract. The lines in the recording of the guitar part indicate the strings (the bottom is the thickest). Numbers are frets. The notes located on the common vertical play simultaneously - a chord is obtained. The record is read like a book: from left to right, dropping to the bottom line only after the top one has ended. The duration of sounds is most often not indicated.

Musical instrument for the piano ↑

Each key on the piano is a note. Every 12 keys, they are repeated. In the recording, the sound designations for the black keys are shown in bold. Before you master the tablature for this instrument, you must learn to read notes for the bass clef. Recording a part for a piano contains two parts. The first, upper (under the treble clef) is for the right hand. The second, lower (with bass clef) - for the left.

In the tablature there are key signs: # - sharp, b - flat, - bacar. They denote:

  • sharp - an increase of all sounds indicated in the line to the right of it by a semitone, and a double sharp - by a tone,
  • a flat and a double flat - lowering the sound by half a tone and tone, respectively,
  • bécar - the abolition of key characters for the note located behind it.

It must be remembered that notes with key characters are black keys.

To play the piano (piano) use the pedals. The tablature contains designations only for the right, which is called the retention pedal or forte. It is pressed when they see the word “Ped.” Below the note, and released when the star icon appears.

Theoretically, how to read notes for a piano can tell a tutorial. In practice, a skill requires perseverance, attention, and good memory. Virtual and printed tests will be useful, which allow you to quickly check how well the material is mastered. It is advisable to perform them daily in order to bring reading musical notation to the automatism necessary for a professional. Teachers also recommend exercises for the general development of memory and concentration of attention (perform 15-30 minutes every day).

Useful tips ↑

Before you learn to read music easily, a lot of time will pass. Take a few important rules and clearly follow them.

1. Music loves time, therefore, to master its basics in a hurry, "for show" - it means to predict failure in advance.
2. Continuous practice is the key to success. Strengthen your knowledge by playing your favorite instruments, immersing yourself in listening to music, tapping your favorite bars.
3. Working on solfeggio is another important point that will help you hear notes and train your ears.

And remember, music loves persistent, hardworking and patient. So go for it!

Grand Major Chord (Cmaj7)

The chord consists of four sounds:

  • To (C) - the main tone of the chord (tonic),
  • Mi (E) - big third (III stage),
  • Salt (G) - pure fifth (V stage),
  • C (B) - large septima (VII stage).
https://samesound.ru/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/Cmaj7.mp3

Small minor seventh chord (Cm7)

The chord consists of four sounds:

  • To (C) - the main tone of the chord (tonic),
  • E flat (Eb) - minor third (lowered III stage),
  • Salt (G) - pure fifth (V stage),
  • B flat (Bb) - minor septima (low VII stage).
https://samesound.ru/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/Cm7.mp3

Small Major Seventh Chord (C7)

The chord consists of four sounds:

  • To (C) - the main tone of the chord (tonic),
  • Mi (E) - big third (III stage),
  • Salt (G) - pure fifth (V stage),
  • B flat (Bb) - minor septima (low VII stage).
https://samesound.ru/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/C7.mp3

Reduced seventh chord (Cdim7)

The chord consists of four sounds:

  • To (C) - the main tone of the chord (tonic),
  • E flat (Eb) - minor third (lowered III stage),
  • F sharp (F #) - newt (lowered V stage),
  • Sea double flat (Bbb) - large sexta (twice lower stage VII).
https://samesound.ru/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/Cdim7.mp3

Major Triad with an Additional IX Stage (Cadd9)

The chord consists of four sounds:

  • To (C) - the main tone of the chord (tonic),
  • Mi (E) - big third (III stage),
  • Salt (G) - pure fifth (V stage),
  • Re (D) - large nona (IX stage).
https://samesound.ru/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/Cadd9.mp3

Major Triad with XIII Stage Added (Cadd13)

The chord consists of four sounds:

  • To (C) - the main tone of the chord (tonic),
  • Mi (E) - big third (III stage),
  • Salt (G) - pure fifth (V stage),
  • A (A) - terzdetsim (XIII step, sixth through nona).
https://samesound.ru/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/Cadd13.mp3

Sextaccords

In classical musical theory (that is, we are talking not only about chords for pianos and keyboards, but also for all musical instruments), the first reversal of a triad is called a sextax chord. However, in modern musical practice, a sextacord means a four-sounding chord consisting of a triad and an added sexta, that is, the sixth (VI) step.

Major Sextacord (C6)

The chord consists of four sounds:

  • To (C) - the main tone of the chord (tonic),
  • Mi (E) - big third (III stage),
  • Salt (G) - pure fifth (V stage),
  • La (A) - the big sixth (VI stage).
https://samesound.ru/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/C6.mp3

Major Sextacord with Stage IX Added (C6 / 9)

The chord consists of five sounds:

  • To (C) - the main tone of the chord (tonic),
  • Mi (E) - big third (III stage),
  • Salt (G) - pure fifth (V stage),
  • La (A) - the big sixth (VI stage),
  • Re (D) - large nona (IX stage).
https://samesound.ru/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/C69.mp3

Chords with add-ons

In addition to the more familiar chords, consisting of three and four sounds, there are chords, which include five or more sounds. Such chords for pianos and keyboards, as well as other musical instruments are formed by sequentially adding to the seventh chord additional steps (the same add-ons) located along the thirds.

Add-on steps include XI (nona), XI (undecime), XIII (terzdecim) and other subsequent steps. It should be noted and always remember that additional steps in the composition do not change the quality of the seventh chord and its harmonic function in harmony. In simpler terms, a minor seventh chord always remains a minor, regardless of the add-ons that appear in its structure. The same applies to major chords.

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