I must say that it’s not mine. Found on the Internet. Liked. I decided to gash it here.
The recommended type of aircraft is a small twin-engine aircraft of the type L-410 or YAK-40. The method can be applied to other types of aircraft.
1. When planning a flight, I recommend taking along a GPS-navigator, and taking them the coordinates of the beginning and end of the runway (runway) of the landing airport. The device will facilitate the search for an airport and approach. On board there are regular navigation devices - “drives”, but you do not know how to use them, so you have to fly through the navigator. If you were not able to take the coordinates of the start and end of the runway in advance, tune the walkie-talkie to the frequency "control" of the landing airport and ask them to dictate these coordinates. Also on board you can search for an atlas of maps with landing approaches for all the nearest airfields. Maps must have coordinates.
2. We sit in the cockpit in the left armchair - the commander of the aircraft usually sits in it.
3. Before us is the helm and a huge number of obscure devices and controls. In fact, all devices are signed in Russian.
4. Above your head, a huge number of toggle switches. Turn them all up, then turn off obviously not mandatory - for example, interior lighting, a fan, etc.
5. At the right hand we find two throttle levers - engine control levers. We check that they are set to idle - almost to the end on themselves.
6. We assume that the aircraft is refueled with a certain amount of fuel, which may be enough for the planned flight. We also assume that the aircraft was correctly parked and was on the "hand brake" (which is actually usually controlled by the foot).
7. We are looking (usually under small glass covers) for two buttons to start the engines. First, press one, wait for the engine to spin up and start. Then we press the second.
8. Under the legs we see two pedals. When driving along the runway with these pedals you need to steer left and right. Like on a tank - the right pedal slows down the right landing gear. Left - left rack. Which rack to brake the pedal to the wrong side of the plane during take-off and starts to turn.
9. The steering wheel, similar to the steering wheel of a car, deviates forward and backward, and also rotates like a steering wheel left-right. When moving on Earth, the helm is not used and must be in a neutral released position.
10. Before takeoff, you need to find the flap control lever - the so-called wing mechanization (everything is signed!) If necessary (if you can’t find the necessary control element for a long time - look for the RLE booklet - the flight manual for the aircraft - it should always be somewhere on board ) Flaps set at an angle close to the maximum. About 30-40 degrees.
11. The plane takes off at a speed of approximately 195-215 kilometers per hour, and lands at a speed of approximately 185-195 kilometers per hour. At a lower speed, the plane will fall into a complete stall and fall. Therefore, throughout the flight you need to clearly monitor the speed. It is advisable to put a friend in the right seat who would continuously say the phrase: “Speed 210 altitude 35 ... speed 215 altitude 25 ...” during take-off and landing. This will help you not to be distracted by speed and altitude instruments, and at the same time focus on the airplane controls.
12. Before take-off, zero the altimeter. The fact is that the altimeter works on the principle of measuring atmospheric pressure, which decreases with increasing altitude. Since the pressure itself can vary during the day, you need to set the current atmospheric pressure at the height of the airfield before takeoff, and check that the altimeter shows zero meters in height.
13. Set the radio station in advance to the “circle” frequency - for communication with the dispatcher of the airport where you plan to fly. This is necessary in order to request atmospheric pressure before landing (to adjust the altimeter for the landing airport), and if necessary, for an experienced pilot to give you tips on landing if you have difficulties.
14. Now everything is ready for take-off. Fasten the GPS-navigator so that it does not fall in flight, fasten your seat belts, put on your headphones.
15. Take off (and land) must be against the wind. Therefore, determine which side of the wind is blowing relative to the runway. Let the wind be a little lateral, the main thing is to choose one of the two ends of the runway, so that when you take off, the wind blows in your face and not in your back.
16. Ores feed forward a third or half turn, with your foot remove the plane from the "hand" brake. The plane will roll on the taxiway. If the speed is low, feed the ores slightly forward. if the speed is too big - RUDY feed back and with both pedals simultaneously slow down the plane rolling in the strip. To turn left, press the left pedal and release the right. To turn right - press the right pedal and release the left. Roll out to the beginning of the runway and stop by pressing both pedals at the same time and removing the ores to a minimum of gas (back).
17. Do not worry. Takeoff is not so terrible - landing will be worse.
18. Take a look at whether the runway is free.
19. Take-off: ORE as far as possible, the engines will start to glow, release both pedals - rolled. Lightly pedal to stay centered on the runway while taking off.
20. Watch for speed. As soon as it exceeds 200-210 kilometers per hour, gently pull the helm toward you and wait for it to lift off the ground. IMPORTANT! Since the plane will fall to the ground at a speed of 185 kilometers per hour, it is necessary to prevent a decrease in speed below 200 when taking off! When you pull the helm toward you, the nose of the plane lifts up and the wings slow down, the plane slows down. Engines accelerate the plane. It is important not to pull the steering wheel too hard so that the engine thrust is enough to increase speed. If the speed starts to fall, slightly release the helm to the neutral position (slightly forward). If the speed grows - to gain altitude, slightly pull the helm towards you. Balance the helm so that the speed does not fall below 200. And the height grows at the same time. Your assistant (co-pilot) all this time will be constantly loudly speaking aloud to you the current speed and altitude.
21. Remember that you took off with flaps released. On flaps released, you can fly only at low speed. If you accelerate too much, the flaps will break. Flaps during takeoff and landing help to fly at minimum speed, and at the same time prevent the flow from completely stalling and stalling the plane into a flat corkscrew. If the plane flies on the flaps without falling at a speed of 185-200 km / h, then without flaps it can fall at a speed of 210-230 km / h. Therefore, immediately after takeoff, while the flaps are released, do not exceed a speed of 260-270 km / h. If the speed has grown to 260 km / h, pull the helm harder for yourself - you will gain more speed, but the speed will decrease, and the flaps will not break. If you have already scored 500 meters, you can slightly reduce the angle of the flaps - to about 15-20 degrees. After reducing the angle of the flaps, you can already reach 300 kilometers per hour. Then you can completely remove the flaps and continue to accelerate. But I recommend that you fly at a small angle of flaps of degrees 10-15, without accelerating more than 340 and not reducing speed less than 290 kilometers per hour - so that you have more time to think about your actions.
22. After climbing, release the helm to the neutral position. To prevent the aircraft from accelerating too much, remove some gas by pulling the ORE backwards - approximately to the position of 85% of the maximum Ore forward stroke. If the speed is too big - pull the ORE a little back, if the speed drops to the minimum limit of the range (290-340 km / h) - feed the ORE a bit forward.
23. Also you have INTERCEPTORS - air brakes. They are controlled by pedals. Both pedals pressed together - flaps will come out from the upper part of the wing, which will slightly begin to slow the aircraft into air, and speed will begin to fall.
24. Now you need to turn in the direction of flight to the destination airport. Look at your GPS navigator. In order for the plane to turn, you need to act simultaneously with two controls: For example, to turn right, you need to simultaneously press the right pedal and lightly turn the steering wheel to the right like the steering wheel of a car. Turning the steering wheel to the right like a rudder, you roll the plane to the right - the right wing drops, the left wing rises. But the plane still doesn’t really want to turn right - you need to additionally press the right pedal - an air brake will come out on the right wing, but not on the left. The aircraft will begin to turn to the right: the right wing will begin to slow down, the left - to overtake. You can’t act only by turning the steering wheel (steering wheel) without a pedal, and you cannot press only one pedal without simultaneously turning the steering wheel in the same direction. Because when you press only one pedal, the plane starts to turn to the right and capsize on your left side, you will fly upside down (I will tell about aerobatics and aerobatics on the plane in the next master class, not here). If you just turn the helm to the right like a steering wheel without pedals, the plane will tilt to the right and may fall onto the wing - the projection of the wing on the ground will decrease and the plane will begin to fall! Only simultaneous rotation of the steering wheel and pressing the pedal will allow you to deploy the plane in the right direction.
25. When turning, constantly monitor the speed - during a turn, it usually falls. Therefore, if at a turn the speed approaches the minimum of the interval (290-340 km / h), increase the gas by moving the ORE forward. With increasing speed, reduce the gas by moving the ORE backward. When cornering, try not to pull the steering wheel toward you or give up on yourself - turn in a neutral position. There are additional methods of turning - without pedals (turning the helm to the right like a rudder and simultaneously tightening the helm toward yourself), but additional methods are not included in the short course of aircraft control.
26. Before approaching the destination airport, determine the orientation of the runway relative to you. You need to fly to the runway from the end. At the same time, it is mandatory against the wind. Contact the airport with a walkie-talkie and ask the dispatcher for the weather - wind direction. Usually, all frequencies of the controllers of all surrounding airports are in a special booklet, which is on board. Look for her and tune the walkie-talkie to the controller "Control", "Approach", or "Circle". In your situation, do not care with which dispatcher you contact - there will still be no other chance to land. Find out the direction of the wind. Keep in mind that in aviation the wind blows in the opposite direction - if you say the North wind, in fact the wind will be south. We citizens are used to calling the wind north if it blows from the north, and in aviation the wind is called north if it blows from south to north! Find out the direction of the wind in degrees and determine from the navigator from which end of the runway you need to land so that the wind blows in the face and not in the back. Select a point from the end of the runway from which you will land, at a distance of 100 kilometers, fly to this point. In it, turn in the direction of the airport. You will have 15-20 flights left at your reserve (at your speed), during this time, guided by the navigator, you must level your plane so that it flies strictly at the end of the runway directly along the axis of the runway. If necessary, turn left-right, aligning along the axis of the runway and flying strictly at its end.
27. Ask the air traffic controller about the atmospheric pressure at the landing airport, and set the pressure at the landing airport on the altimeter so that the altimeter shows the correct height above the runway at the landing airport. Polish pilots forgot to make this point during the plane crash of the presidential plane. Do not forget you!
28. Before lowering, it is necessary to simultaneously reduce the speed and release the flaps (wing mechanization) to the level of 35-45 degrees. Move the ores a little back, the speed will start to fall smoothly, and as it falls slowly release the flaps so that at a speed of 240-260 km / h the flaps are released at an angle of about 40 degrees. If the speed drops below this, add gas by moving the ores forward. If the speed does not drop, turn off the gas by moving the ORES back.
29. Now everything is ready for landing. The decline. Slightly reduce engine thrust. Speed will begin to fall, and the plane will slowly begin to decline. Push the steering wheel away from you a little (neatly!) - the decrease will increase, but the speed will begin to increase. Squeezing both pedals lightly together, gently slow down the airspeed that is growing at a lower speed. If the speed grows strongly, reduce the thrust of the engines by pulling the ORES a little back. In the cockpit there is a dashboard showing the rate of decline - in meters per second. Find it and keep the value within 2-7 meters per second. If the speed of descent is above 7 m / s - move the helm towards yourself and get ready to add a falling speed so that it does not fall below 240 km / h. You can add a falling speed by releasing both brake pedals, and if this does not help, slightly increase the gas by moving the ORE forward. If the descent speed is lower than 2 m / s, push the helm a little harder from yourself and get ready to slow down the increasing speed. It is possible to reduce the increasing speed by pressing both brake pedals, and if this does not help, move the ores back to reduce engine thrust. Lower to a height of 80 meters, at which stop the decline. To stop the decline, you need to release the helm to the neutral position, release the air brake pedals, and with a small amount of gas to add ores to achieve a flight without reduction and without gaining altitude, and at the same time not go to the speed range of 240-260 km / h. If the decline continues, pull the helm toward you a little and adjust the speed with the ORE. If climb has begun, just push the steering wheel away from you and adjust the speed with the ores, and also slow down with the spoilers - air brakes (pedals). And so fly before you see the runway with your eyes. Support the height of 80-100 m with the helm back and forth, while maintaining the speed with the ores and pedals.
30. As you approach the runway, inspect the ore. They should have a reverse lever. It looks like a lever leaning back from the ORE, the inscription Reverse should be on it. Immediately after touching the runway, you will need to put the reverse into effect, think about how you will do it. When touching, you need to completely remove the gas by quickly pulling the ORE backward, then pull out the reverse lever from the ORE back and up, and directly by the reverse lever raised up, quickly quickly push the ORE together with the raised reverse lever forward to the maximum. But it will only be after touching the chassis. By the way, we didn’t remove the landing gear after take-off - especially so that when landing we wouldn’t be distracted by them. We specifically did not clean the flaps to the end and did not accelerate the aircraft above 340 km / h. At higher speeds, the chassis can also break. We flew slowly with the landing gear released, and now everything is ready for landing.
31. You saw in the distance the end (beginning) of the runway for several kilometers. You need to start lowering to a minimum, so that immediately at the beginning of the strip you touch it and land. Already need to drop to a height of 20 meters, so as not to fly over the runway. There is more danger of flying than flying. It is important not to touch the trees in front of the runway at a low-level flight. Slightly reduce the thrust of the OREs, slightly tilt the helm away from you (not necessary - the aircraft can lower its nose and go down as soon as you lower the gas by Ores) slightly depress the pedals, braking the plane so as not to exceed the speed of 240 km / h. At this stage of descent (on the glide path), you need to simultaneously reduce the speed of the aircraft even more - to 200 km / h, but not lower. The second pilot (your friend) must constantly say the speed-altitude, as well as the third parameter - the rate of decline! The speed of descent on the glide path should be no more than 1-3 meters per second. Decrease to a height of 20 meters, and immediately in front of the butt - and to 10, 5 meters ... At the very beginning of the strip, the height should be 3 meters, speed 190-200 km / h. Remove the ores to a position of 20-30% of their course, pull the helm toward you - the plane will make a pillow (the speed of descent will slow down), the speed will also start to decrease, the plane will meet a strip at a speed of 180-185 km / h. Immediately after touching, push the ORE backward to failure, pull up the reverse lever, and right behind it again with the ORE forward forward to failure. The reverse will begin to slow down the plane. And you help to slow down with two pedals at the same time. If the plane starts to leave the center of the strip - use the same pedals to drive to the right - release the left pedal and depress the right one. To steer left, release the right pedal and depress the left pedal. To brake, press both pedals simultaneously. After reducing the speed, remove the ores back to failure, continue to drop the residual speed with the pedals until it stops.
32. Поставьте самолет на ручной тормоз специальной педалькой чуть выше основных педалей.
33. Ожидайте подъезда полиции, которая уже выехала Вас арестовывать.
Сложно ли управлять самолётомПодробности Категория: Человек и небо Опубликовано 07.08.2014 18:46 Просмотров: 6537
Управление самолётом – это изменение его положения в воздухе. Делать это разрешается людям, имеющим соответствующую подготовку - профессиональным пилотам либо пилотам-любителям.
Система управления самолётом
The flight control of an aircraft along a predetermined path is carried out using a control system that can be non-automatic, semi-automatic and automatic.
In non-automatic or manual mode, the pilot, depending on the situation, independently deflects the steering surfaces and holds them in position with the help of the strength of their muscles. In a semi-automatic system, the pilot's manipulations are enhanced by various automatic devices, which ensure the controllability of the aircraft. And in automatic mode, the individual phases of the flight take place without the participation of the pilot at all, since the system fully ensures their automation. But, if necessary, the pilot can take control at any time.
Driving an airplane is much more difficult than, for example, a car. The car has only one steering wheel, which you must either keep straight or turn left or right. A plane can move up or down or even tilt. Therefore, he has several rudders, which are called steering wheels: elevator, rudder, deflected ailerons.
Linked coordinate system
In space during the flight, the plane moves along a complex path. To describe its motion, the axes associated with the aircraft itself are introduced. They move and rotate with him. And the coordinate system itself is called related. It consists of longitudinal, transverse and vertical axes. All of them pass through the center of mass of the aircraft.
Longitudinal axis (OH) consider the construction axis of the aircraft. It is laid at the design stage. When the aircraft rotates around this axis, it lowers one wing console and raises another. This movement is called "Bank ". The pilot can control the roll using ailerons.
Axis Oyperpendicular to the longitudinal axis is called vertical. It is located in the plane of symmetry of the aircraft. The rotation around this axis is called "yaw". With this movement, the nose of the aircraft deviates left or right. Manages Yaw rudder.
Axis Ozperpendicular to the plane of symmetry of the aircraft and directed towards its right console is called transverse axis. Rotating around this axis, the plane raises or lowers its nose. This movement is called "pitch. The angle between the longitudinal axis OX and the horizontal plane is called "pitch angle". The pitch at which the angle increases and the nose of the plane rises is called cabling. And with a decrease in the angle and lowering of the nose - dive. In relation to ships, this movement is called trim. Controls pitch elevator. It is a movable controlled surface. Its deviation leads to the deviation of the aircraft in pitch.
Elevator can be installed in different places of the aircraft. In various aerodynamic schemes, it is either an element of the tail, or is located in front of the aircraft.
Aileronscalled roll rudders. They are aerodynamic moving surfaces symmetrically located on the trailing edge of the wing consoles. Ailerons deviate differentially, that is, in opposite directions. In order to bank the plane to the right, the right aileron rotates up, and the left aileron down and vice versa.
The pilot transfers the force to the elevators and ailerons using the helm. Turning the helm causes the ailerons to deviate and changes the roll of the plane. And the deviation of the helm “on itself” or “from itself” is activated by elevators. This changes the pitch angle. The nose of the aircraft rises or falls. In some models of modern aircraft, the helm is replaced control knob.
Rudder controls the plane relative to the vertical axis, that is, with its help changes yaw angle. It is located in the tail. They are controlled by pressing the pedals located in the cockpit.
How to fly a plane
The main stages of aircraft control are taxiing, take-off and landing.
Taxiing is performed before takeoff and after landing.
Before you go to the runway (runway), start and warm the engines of the aircraft. Then he starts off by himself or with the help of a special tractor, drives up to the beginning of the strip and stops. When the dispatcher gives permission, taxiing to the runway takes place, then take off, quickly climb and take off when reaching a certain speed.
The moment when the aircraft begins to move along the runway for take-off is considered the start of take-off. Before takeoff, the pilot translates the flaps and slats into the calculated position. Passengers of the aircraft can watch through the porthole, as at this moment new planes appear from the rear of the wing. This is the flaps. Their main function is to reduce takeoff speed.
On take-off, high speed is not needed. While the plane picks it up, no landing strip is enough. But a decrease in speed causes a decrease in lift. And in order to increase the lifting force, the plane must increase the angle of attack, that is, “lift its nose”. But to increase this angle to infinity is impossible. At a certain value of this angle, called the critical angle of attack, the air flow cannot be held on the upper surface of the wing, it breaks down. The pressure distribution on the wing surface changes, and it can no longer create lift, that is, it loses its bearing properties.
Flaps help to cope with this problem. These are deflected surfaces located symmetrically on the rear of the wing. By releasing flaps, they increase the curvature of the wing profile and its surface area. This, in turn, increases the lifting force without increasing the angle of attack, and, consequently, the carrying capacity of the wing, and allows to reduce take-off speed.
Slats - deflected surfaces mounted on the leading edge of the wing. They deviate along with the flaps. Their main task is to increase the permissible angle of attack so that the disruption of the air flow from the upper surface of the wing takes place at a higher value. With the help of slats, the angle of attack increases by 10-15 °, and after separation from the strip, the plane goes up, sharply lifting its nose.
Landing is considered the most difficult stage of aircraft control. It begins with a decrease in height and ends with a complete stop on the ground.
Before landing, the aircraft performs a landing approach. During approach, he maneuvers over the airfield. Its configuration is changing. Chassis, then slats or flaps are gradually released, which allow you to keep the aircraft horizontal position at low speeds. Speed decreases to landing.
Landing of the aircraft begins at an altitude of 25 m above the threshold of the runway. Its duration is 6-10 seconds. It includes leveling, the aging process, parachuting and landing, mileage.
When leveling, the vertical speed on the glide path decreases (almost to zero) (the trajectory of the aircraft). But its horizontal speed still remains high. And in order to extinguish it, for some time the plane flies horizontally, that is, is “maintained”. Thus, the alignment smoothly goes into aging.
During holding, the speed decreases simultaneously and the angle of attack increases to values that allow landing. Further, as a result of a drop in speed, the lifting force becomes less than the gravity of the aircraft, and it will begin to "parachute." This is like planning. Soon the plane will touch the ground and after a while it will stop.
Instructions on how to fly an airplane
We omit the take-off procedure, because even in case of problems (God forbid, of course), the passenger will not be able to do anything. The take-off mechanism is worked out separately and you need hours of training and special simulators to master it. Imagine that an emergency occurred during the flight. You enter the aircraft control cabin. Take the left seat of the first pilot, that is, the captain of the vessel. Here you will find everything you need in order to direct the plane on the desired course and land. To get started, navigate in space. The nose of the aircraft should not be pulled up (mostly the sky is visible) and should not “peck” (mostly the ground is visible). To align we use the helm. Take care not to make sudden movements - all maneuvers must be performed smoothly. If you pull the steering wheel toward yourself, the plane will begin to gain altitude, if from itself it will go down. You probably played flight simulators on a computer - here you need to do everything in much the same way you manage a plane online.
Align the plane with the horizon
And what to do when there is no way to navigate in space? This can occur, for example, in dense clouds. In this case, we use a device called the horizon. You can easily recognize this special index by the blue of the sky and the brown of the earth on the screen. In the middle of the horizon, the letter "W" is located, which indicates the wings of the aircraft. The correct position of the horizon, indicating that the plane flies evenly - when the blue part is at the top (sky), and the brown is at the bottom (earth) and an even horizontal strip passes between them in the center. If the picture is different, take the helm and slowly and gradually align the position of the aircraft with it.
Contact the dispatch service
Having completed one important task of leveling the aircraft, we proceed to another - we inform the dispatcher about our situation. To do this, we press a special button located directly on the helm - under the thumb. However, there is one thing here - by clicking on this button, you can turn off the autopilot, so if you are not sure, use the radio located just below the window to the left of the pilot's seat for negotiations. Press and hold the button to say something and release to listen. To request, press the button and say SOS or Mayday. Now call yourself and explain what happened to you. If the flight is international, it is better to speak English - all air traffic controllers understand this language. If there is no answer at the preset frequency, then reconfigure the receiver to the VHF (VHF) frequency - at 121.5 MHz - it is constantly monitored by all rescue services. The frequency control panel is usually located on the dashboard - between the seats of the first and second pilots, or opposite the captain. After the connection is established, follow the instructions of the air traffic controller exactly.
Here I can please you: most planes automatically land at a certain point. However, when there are 30 meters to the ground, you will need to slightly pull the steering wheel toward you and as soon as the main landing gears touch the ground, direct the steering wheel away from you to level it so that the front strut also touches the ground. Just remember to release the chassis before that - the handle is on the front dashboard to the right of the central console. Now we remove the traction, for which we transfer the traction control levers to the rear position. At the top of the steering pedals are the brakes - press them, gradually slowing down. If there is an exit from the runway (runway), adjust the direction using the steering pedals. That's all, it remains only to say a few rules that will help you avoid many troubles, if you need to fly a plane:
- Not far from the traction control levers are switches for activating flaps or slats - they help reduce aircraft speed and maintain horizontal course at low speed. Just activate them on time: if there is no one to tell (there is no connection), refer to the TOLD - table of take-off and landing data (from the English take off and landing data).
- If you find a speed indicator, see that the speed (it is always indicated relative to the air flow) is in the green zone - this means that the plane is flying normally. Problems can arise if speed is in the red zone - in this case it needs to be increased, otherwise it can lead to catastrophic consequences, that is, to an aircraft crash. Speed can be measured in knots, or maybe in kilometers per hour. At what speed to land, check with the dispatcher. For large aircraft, this is usually 130 knots or 240 km / h, and for small ones - 70 knots or 130 km / h. At this speed, it is recommended to open the flaps and release the landing gear. The flight speed of a large civilian aircraft should be at the level of 370 km / h (200 knots).
And remember - learning to fly a plane is real, the main thing is to keep calm and follow the instructions. By the way, in order to better understand how a civilian aircraft works, download and install the Microsoft Flight Simulator X or 2012 flight simulator - this excellent program will teach you many of the intricacies of controlling aircraft. After all, today anyone first learns to fly a plane online, and only then transfers to the helm of a real plane.