It is believed that cricket originated in the southeast of England. In the historical chronicles of King Edward I, a game similar to cricket was often mentioned, which was entertained by the inhabitants of the county of Kent in the 13th century.
The word "cricket" itself could come from the word "cric" - the so-called curved shepherd's stick. She locked the gate that led to the pasture. Mostly young peasants played cricket, and it is reported that they learned about the game in continental Europe before this game became widespread in England in the 17th century.
In the early 60s of the XVIII century in the city of Hambledon, Hampshire, the first cricket club was formed. The team from this county has been the country's most powerful club for 25 years. Nobody knew how to hit so hard and throw the ball so sharply as the inhabitants of Hampshire.
Soon, the center of English cricket moved to London: on the Dorset fields, someone Thomas Lord opened a platform for the game. At about the same place in the British capital and now stands Lord's Cricket Stadium, the cradle of cricket in its modern form.
Later, the Marylebone Cricket Club (MCC) was opened there. Soon, he became the country's most powerful club, the rules were changed under his pressure, and therefore, the leadership of world cricket is currently located there.
At the beginning of the last century, cricket was included in the Olympic program for a short time, however, due to the lack of competition, this sport was excluded.
Cricket Traditions and Etiquette
Cricket spread throughout the world as the power of the British Empire grew. Therefore, if you look at the participants of the 2003 World Cup, then the list of participating countries, with rare exceptions, will be former colonies of the empire, "over which the sun never sets." Cricket is most developed and popular in Australia (world champion), New Zealand, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, South Africa, Namibia, Zimbabwe, Kenya, Canada and Western India (Caribbean team).
Cricket matches can last several days, and often it seems that nothing is happening on the field, and the players just stand idly and look around. Often, several minutes may elapse between dashes. Therefore, the fans take the trip to the stadium very seriously, stocking up with baskets of food and drink.
Being a cricket fan in England is prestigious, and often wealthy companies have their own box in the stadium. Although, as they say here, in such boxes during matches mainly important matters are decided, and what is happening on the field is just the background.
Two teams of 11 people play cricket, each of which gets a chance to hit and serve the ball. The task is to destroy the gate of the opponent (wicket) with the ball.
The match is won by the team that scores the most points (runs) during the beating process.
A team is not considered to be knocked out until it has one batsman left unbroken. After the team giving the ball knocks out all the batsmen of the opponent, the teams change positions.
So, the goal of the game is to score more points than the opponent. Points are awarded for the so-called "runs" (runs). The number of dashes directly depends on how far the batsman hit the ball served to him. The farther the ball flies away, the more time the players of the serving team will spend on returning it to the center of the field, and at this time the batsman, moving from one wicket to another, gains those same “dashes”.
If the ball flew far away, then, as a rule, the batter manages to make one dash, if the ball leaves the field surrounded by a rope, the team can be credited with up to six dashes. The maximum number of points can be obtained if the ball has left the field without touching the ground once.
The nature of cricket is such that a match lasting from two to five days (the so-called test match) can end in a draw. In five-day matches, in which only teams from different countries participate, each team gets two opportunities to serve and beat (two innings - two rounds of the wicket throw). In the championship of England, where county teams compete, matches last four days.
Cricket is played on a large oval field, however, the most important events take place in the center, on a specially prepared track called the pitch line or wicket. It is a rectangle 20 meters long and three - wide.
At the opposite ends of the track are the gates themselves, consisting of willow columns (stumps) - 71 cm in height and a total width of 22 cm - with bails lying on them. The task of the batsman is to protect the gate from throwing the server.
All 11 players of the team that serves the ball are on the field. And the team that beats off has only two batsmen on the field, moreover, only one of them takes part in the game itself, and the other plays a supporting role until his partner is knocked out.
Of the 11 people who serve the team, nine can be placed on the field as the captain decides, the 10th player - the bowler - (bowler) throws the ball into the goal net (must be upside down with his straight hand over his shoulder), and the 11th (wicketkeeper) located right behind the batsman. His task is to catch the ball behind the gate.
Bowlers are divided into two types: fastbowler (a player who relies on the strength of the throw) and spinner (the one who knocks out an opponent by spinning the ball).
Cricket ball made of cork and covered with red leather. The leather parts are sewn together in the center, and this slightly protruding part of the ball is called a “seam”, the presence of which is very important for the technique of serving the ball.
The bowler will try to throw the ball so that it hits the ground with this seam, which will change its path, and it will be more difficult for the batsman to react to it.
The match begins with the captains throwing a coin and deciding which team will serve first and which one to beat. Moreover, the captain, making a choice, proceeds from weather conditions, the condition of the field and the physical form of the team.
After six innings in a row (the so-called over), the batter goes to defend the opposite gate. And so the whole match goes on.
If the captain believes that his team has accumulated a sufficient number of “dashes”, he can stop the round of throwing at the gate, that is, exchange roles with the opponent. In this case, they say that the team made a “declaration” (declaration). After changing roles, the team that fought back has a clear idea of how many “dashes” it needs to score in order to win.