Sunflowers in private areas can not always be found, except perhaps decorative varieties or so, a few hats to get delicious seeds. On a large scale, it is usually planted for industrial use. A tall plant and place requires a lot, which is problematic for small cottages. However, if the size of your garden allows you to select several bands, plant there sunflowers. This unpretentious plant will provide you with a stock of seeds and save on their purchase. In addition, he will decorate the cottage with his large hats in the form of the sun. Nothing is particularly difficult in how to grow a sunflower, no. Give him a sunny spot, water and feed on time - that’s, perhaps, all the secrets of a good harvest.
We click homemade seeds all year round! All the subtleties of growing sunflower in the country
Sunflower comes from America. But the plant was so fond of the inhabitants of Russia that it became almost folk. True, it is not so often seen in summer cottages - and in vain! We will tell you how to settle the "sun" again in the country.
To get a crop of seeds in the cottages sown oilseed sunflower. This annual unpretentious plant not only decorates the site, but also attracts pollinating insects. Sunflower fruits are called achenes. Inside them are two edible cotyledons containing a large amount of fat and carbohydrates. They are small in size, have a slightly sweet taste. The inflorescences are medium or large, give a rich harvest, and during the flowering period they can very well be used in cutting to create autumn bouquets.
Sunflower bears fruit best in warm regions, but you can also grow it in the middle lane if you wish. The technology for growing sunflower is quite simple, but still it is worth considering several nuances.
Choose sunflower varieties
What do you want to get from sunflower grown on the site? Abundant fruiting, disease resistance, unpretentiousness. And most importantly, the seeds should be large and tasty! This, not least, depends on which variety or hybrid is selected for sowing. Let's consider some of them.
Volcano F1. Mid-season hybrid, which will give a good harvest even in bad weather and lack of care. Resistant to rust and vertical wilt.
Gourmet Large-fruited variety that will delight the harvest 105-110 days after planting. Beautiful honey plant. Sunflower seeds have excellent taste.
Reina. This hybrid is the record holder for drought tolerance and one of the leaders in yield. Mid-ripening, ripens in 95-100 days after sowing.
SEC. The most popular sunflower variety. Large-fruited, mid-season, excellent honey plant and a real giant (reaches up to 2 m in height). The first crop can be harvested 84-90 days after sowing. It does not tolerate thickening.
Jason F1. High-yielding early ripe hybrid. Not afraid of drought, powdery mildew, gray and white rot. Blossoms and bears fruit evenly.
ON A NOTE! For decorative purposes, sunflower varieties and hybrids such as Teddy bear (Teddy bear), Moulin Rouge F1 (Moulin Rouge F1), Tayo (Taiyo) and etc.
Choose a place to plant sunflower
The name "sunflower" itself suggests that this plant is very fond of the sun. During the day, the young heads of sunflowers follow the movement of the sun, and when the achene begins to ripen, turn it east. Therefore, the best place for a flower is a well-lit area, without shading and drafts.
The soil should be fertile, give preference to chernozems and sandy loams. Heavy, clay and acidified soils will adversely affect the yield. It is better to prepare a site in the fall. Clean the beds of weeds and dig them to a depth of 20 cm, first make a bucket of humus per 1 sq.m. On poor soils, it is also worth introducing complex mineral fertilizers, for example, nitrophos or azofosk according to the instructions. A great idea is to sow siderates that will improve the condition of the soil.
ON A NOTE! Sunflower quickly consumes nutrients, so every year the place of planting needs to be changed. It is not recommended to plant sunflower after legumes, as well as tomatoes and beets. It is best to plant after corn, potatoes, and crops.
Preparing sunflower seeds for sowing
Seeds for sowing sunflower can be bought at the store or prepared independently. In the latter case, do not use hybrid seeds, because new plants will not retain the characteristics of the mother plant.
Then carry out the following procedures in stages:
- if your seeds, calibrate them to size to get uniform seedlings,
- etch the seed with Fundazol, Vincit Forte, TMTD, Bactofit or potassium permanganate solution,
- to stimulate growth, you can use Kornevin or another similar drug,
- dry the seeds on a dry cloth.
Sow sunflower seeds in the ground
For germination, sunflower seeds need a soil temperature of 8-12 ° C at a depth of 8 cm, for normal development and fruiting - 20-27 ° C. Therefore, the best time for sowing is April-May, when the soil warms up well. Another option is to sow seedlings at home or in a greenhouse. It is more suitable for central Russia with its late spring. On average, ripening occurs after 70-150 days, so you can roughly calculate when you want to get the crop and when it is worth sowing.
Sow the treated seeds in well-moistened soil to a depth of 3-5 cm. Put 2-3 seeds in each well in case any seeds do not sprout. If the variety is large, leave between the holes about 80-90 cm, the average - 45-55 cm. The distance between the rows should be at least 0.7 m. Observe the same parameters when planting seedlings in open ground.
We care for sunflower
In the first weeks, plants are especially vulnerable to weeds, so the soil needs to be loosened superficially according to the following scheme:
- after emergence,
- in phase 2 pairs of leaves,
- in phase 3 pairs of leaves (it is also necessary to carry out an earthing up),
- in the phase of 5-6 pairs of leaves.
When the sunflower grows to a height of 70-80 cm, cultivation can be stopped. During flowering, it is desirable to carry out another hilling and, if necessary, establish supports.
ON A NOTE! When 4 real leaves appear on the sunflowers, thin the seedlings. Leave only the strongest specimens, carefully cut the rest. It is not recommended to pull out seedlings, so as not to damage the roots of neighboring plants.
Water the sunflower correctly
Young seedlings of sunflower need moisture, and they need to be watered often enough - in dry weather up to 3 times a day. Plants also need abundant watering during periods of budding, flowering, the formation of baskets and seeds.
The basic rule of watering a sunflower: it must be plentiful so that the earth is moistened to the depth of the roots.
Adult plants are not afraid of drought, their long roots are quite capable of providing themselves with water. But it is not worth it to dry the plants too much, especially in the heat, otherwise the leaves will begin to age faster, and there will be less oil in the seeds.
You need to water the sunflowers in the aisles. It is also possible to carry out sprinkling (artificial irrigation).
We feed sunflower for abundant fruiting
Sunflower loves potassium and will gratefully respond to top dressing during the season. On average, three procedures are required; for convenience, we presented them in a table.
|Sunflower Development Phase||Feeding rate (per 1 sq.m)|
|3 pairs of leaves||20-30 g of superphosphate and 5-10 g of ammonium nitrate|
|Basket formation||2 cups of wood ash, 30-45 g of azofoska or mullein infusion diluted with water 1:10|
|Seed ripening||20-30 g of potassium sulfate|
Fertilize after watering. And be careful with nitrogen fertilizing, otherwise the plants will become more susceptible to disease, and the seeds will be empty.
ON A NOTE! An alternative to top dressing throughout the season is fertilizing the soil before sowing. For 1 sq.m., half a bucket of compost and 2 tablespoons are required. azofoski. The method is suitable only for sufficiently nutritious soils.
We protect sunflower from diseases and pests
Diseases cause great damage to sunflower and can completely deprive the crop. Gray, white and root rot, downy mildew, rust, verticillum wilting, mosaic - these and other ailments arise from improper agricultural technology, in particular, disturbance of crop rotation or adverse weather.
If you find signs of the disease, do not rush to use chemicals. It is better to prepare a solution of Fitosporin or Trichodermin - biological products that can also be used during the harvest season.
Sunflower and pests do no less harm: scoop, aphid, meadow moth, spider mite, wireworm, bear, etc. For the fight, use biological preparations (Bitoxibacillin, Actofit, Boverin, etc.) or folk remedies that will not harm your health.
As soon as the sunflower begins to dry out, its achenka will bend and hang, and the petals will fall almost all - you can harvest. Carefully cut the seeds and let dry for 1-2 days in the fresh air, after covering them from birds with a cloth or paper. Plastic bags will not work, because will create a greenhouse effect.
After drying, you need to remove the seeds. Usually it is enough to rub two seeds against each other over a bucket. If that doesn't work, use a stiff brush. Then rinse the seeds and dry thoroughly, spreading on a flat surface in one layer. Clean up garbage and damaged items. It remains to pour the seeds into paper bags or fabric bags and hide in containers.
Eat raw sunflower seeds or dry them slightly so that they do not lose their beneficial properties. If you like fried salted seeds, take note of our recipe!
Fried Salted Sunflower Seeds - Home Recipe
You will need:500 g of raw seeds, 3-5 tbsp. salt, 1.5-2 liters of water.
Cooking. Rinse the seeds, fill with water and salt and leave overnight. Then dry them, put on a baking sheet in one layer and fry at a temperature of 150 ° C until golden brown (about 30-40 minutes), stirring occasionally. Cool before use.
And you can make tasty and healthy halva!
Homemade halva from sunflower seeds
You will need: 2 cups of unrefined seeds, 1.5 cups of flour, 1 cup of sugar, 80 g of water, 150 g of vegetable oil, nuts, raisins or chocolate.
Cooking. Fry the seeds a little and finely chop together with the husk using a blender, coffee grinder or meat grinder. Dry the flour in a dry pan and mix with chopped seeds. Add sugar to the water and cook the thick syrup. At the end of cooking, add vegetable oil to it. Then pour the seeds obtained with the mixture, mix and place in containers. Add melted chocolate, peeled nuts or raisins, if desired. Place the containers in the refrigerator until the halva hardens.
Bright sunflowers will decorate the flower garden and become a valuable source of vitamins. We hope you figured out how to grow sunflower in the country. Rather, choose a suitable variety and place for planting, so that next year to collect a rich harvest of domestic seeds!
Where to plant?
It is not without reason that they call the sunflower “a sun flower” - to build up a powerful aerial part and large hats, it needs a lot of light. Therefore, the landing site should be well lit by the sun. It is advisable that there is no wind that can break the stems.
The sunflower is not very picky about the soil and can survive almost everywhere. If it is not the beauty of the hats that matters, but their contents, provide the plant with a nutritious soil with neutral or weak acidity. If necessary, under autumn digging, apply phosphorus-potassium fertilizers if the soil is poor. But on sandstones or in waterlogged acidic soil, the sunflower will not please the crop and may hurt.
The best predecessors of sunflower are corn, cruciferous and cereal crops. After beets (sugar) and tomatoes, you can’t plant the tomato, and the sunflower itself can be returned to the same plot only after 7 years. He picks a lot of nutrients from the soil, so most garden crops do not grow well after sunflower. You can replenish the balance by planting legumes there next year.
When and how to plant?
A sunflower loves light, but he does not fear return frosts. However, this does not mean that the seeds must be thrown into the cold earth. Wait until it warms up a bit (up to 8 ° C heat). You can start landing from the end of April.
Seeds are better to choose the largest, selecting hollow. For this, pour the seeds with saline. Throw away what pops up. Put the rest in the holes, leaving a distance of at least 50 cm between them. For tall varieties, you really need a "personal space" of up to 1 m.
To prevent fragrant seeds from eating pests, pickle them before planting with the Commander or Prestige.
How to grow a sunflower: features of caring for the crop
Seeds germinate in warm soil rather quickly and after 1.5 weeks the first sprouts will appear. Now provide the sunflower with optimal conditions, namely:
- Weed regularly to prevent overgrowing with weeds that will draw moisture.
- Water in a timely manner, especially with the beginning of flowering and knotting hats. A sunflower needs enough water to nourish a powerful rhizome and stem.
- Feed your plantings at least three times. Young plants with a pair of true leaves - superphosphate or azophos and urea. In the phase of tying the hats and re-maturing them, infusion of mullein with the addition of potassium sulfate.
When the lower leaves turn yellow at the end of the summer, and the hats bend under their own weight, start harvesting. So that the seeds do not spill out, it is better to cut off the heads a little immature. For a couple of weeks in a dry place they will “reach” and it will be possible to hatch the contents. Sunflower seeds are screened and stored in closed containers.
Dates of planting sunflower in the country in the open ground
The cultivation of sunflower provides a seed method of planting. Use seedling sowing does not make any sense, because the grains are kept spring frosts without risk for future crops. Some gardeners living in the northern regions manage to grow Pancake week crops using seedlings (seedlings). Sowing is carried out in prepared pots or plastic bottles without a bottom in order to transfer shoots to the garden of a summer cottage along with an earthen lump. This allows you to save a poorly developed root system. If it is damaged, the plant may not take root in a new place.
Modern high-oil varieties of sunflower are sown when the soil warms up to +10 degrees at a depth of 5 cm
Sowing dates in late April or early May. Seeds of high-oil varieties of sunflower germinate well and germinate when the soil warms up to 8-10 ° C. Sunflower is unpretentious to growing conditions, the temperature of up to minus 5 ° sprouts that have just appeared can easily withstand.
Sunflower cultivation: soil and climatic conditions
The sunflower is a representative of the astro family. Its height can reach 2.5 m, and the diameter of the baskets is 36 cm. This plant is characterized by a rather thick erect stem and reed flowers (double, semi-double, non-double) of golden, yellowish-orange and brown-red hue. The flowering period of sunflowers is in July-November. In order for the crop to grow well, and in order to reduce the amount of weed grass before sowing the seed, it needs to provide a suitable soil, a warm and dry climate.
Due to the fact that the sunflower is susceptible to certain diseases, a 5-year break is recommended between plantings. During this period, planting in this area of crops accumulating these diseases is not desirable, namely:
If you still planted any of these crops, you should wait a few years before sowing the sunflower in the soil. Otherwise, a large number of weeds or diseases can lead to the destruction of the entire crop.
So, consider what you need to pay attention to get a good harvest of sunflowers.
This Pancake week crop is well adapted to many types of soil. She needs fat land that will allow for a rich harvest. The best options for sunflower are considered soils with an average clay content and a large amount of water resources. Sunflower does not particularly need nitrogen. It is possible to provide the plant with greater resistance to stressful situations by introducing potassium-phosphorus additives.
For successful ripening, the sunflower needs 20 warm and dry days in August-September. This culture is characterized by increased sensitivity to weeds, therefore, before planting, the site must be thoroughly cleaned of them. If the sunflower is exposed to weeds, its leaves will be too large, therefore, the stem will be very thin and vulnerable to many diseases.
Preparing the soil
It is best to plant sunflowers in the former crop areas, which were harvested in the summer. В этом случае выпадает больше времени на качественную подготовку почвы. Если предшественник оставил после себя растительные остатки, необходимо осуществить дискование (рыхление верхнего слоя земли с помощью дисковых орудий).In autumn, soil should be plowed to a depth of 30 cm. Due to the early preparation of land in the spring, it will be possible to retain moisture in it. In order to carry out high-quality sowing of seeds and achieve their uniform germination, the soil needs to be thoroughly prepared. You can get a fine soil structure, which is needed for sowing sunflower, by rolling. This procedure allows you to level the surface of the earth, compact it and grind large lumps.
How to prepare sunflower seeds for planting?
Pollination is typical for sunflower, so experts do not recommend sowing seeds from the previous crop. Before sowing, the seed must be calibrated and treated. Calibration is carried out using a sieve, which will allow to weed out small seeds, leaving the largest. Planting material must also be checked "for completeness." To do this, the seeds are immersed in a water-salt solution at the rate of 1 tsp. on 1 liter of water. You can use only those seeds that within 10 minutes have sunk to the bottom.
In order to collect a good crop in the future, sunflower seeds must be treated with chemical preparations before planting. This will protect them from pests who like to enjoy this culture. For this purpose, you can use purchased funds (Prestige, Commander) or folk. You will need twisted garlic (100 g) and onion peel. These components must be filled in with 2 liters of hot water for 8 hours, then strain the solution and lower the sunflower seeds into it for 12 hours.
The first stage of sowing sunflower seeds is loosening the soil (this can be done manually or with a shovel), which will make it as light and crumbly as possible. Next, you should dig a few pits with a depth of 2-3 cm, which should be located at a distance of 15-35 cm. If you prefer planting seed in a row, leave between them about 35 cm. A large amount of free space will allow good growth of sunflowers. When planting seeds of large sunflowers, leave at least 40-45 cm between them, and for medium ones 30 cm will be enough.
In each hole you need to put 3-4 seeds and sprinkle them with earth. Sowing of planting material within 2-3 weeks is allowed. This will allow you to enjoy the harvest longer (it will ripen at different times). Despite the fact that sunflowers bloom only once a year, alternating sowing of seeds will allow you to admire their flowering for a longer time.
When the seed is planted, a small amount of fertilizer will need to be applied. It is advisable to give preference to organic top dressing, which should be scattered throughout the territory. Such actions will contribute to the growth of strong stems. Thanks to the addition of mulch, the soil will remain dry and no excess moisture will accumulate in it. Remember to water the beds well after making compost.
An important point! The soil needs irrigation, but you should not overdo it, otherwise there is a risk of flooding the seeds.
The main stages of sunflower care
To obtain large and oily sunflower seeds, proper care must be taken. It is about proper soil fertilization and regular watering of the crop, as well as the application of protective measures against pests and various diseases. The process of sunflower care consists of 4 main stages, which will be discussed later.
Sunflowers need a garter only if they grow in an open area that is not protected from the winds. Plants that are too tall can break and bend under the influence of the wind, so it’s best to play it safe and tie them up.
Regular watering will provide an excellent crop of high quality. Sunflowers should be watered daily 1 time, but during periods of drought or with a lack of moisture, the frequency of watering should be increased to 2-3 times a day.
Sunflowers need a large amount of potassium, and the use of nitrogen-based fertilizers should be minimized, since exceeding the permissible dose makes this crop vulnerable to many diseases. Although the sunflowers grow large and beautiful, it is very likely that their baskets will be empty. Picky bees are very fond of pollinating sunflowers fed with phosphorus-potassium fertilizers - these plants seem more “sweet” to them. Feeding should be carried out 3 times:
1. at the time of landing,
3. when the first weeding is done.
Sunflower seeds are liked not only by people, but also by birds, rodents and insects. That is why it is so important to protect the seed at the time of planting. For this, a special tincture for etching is used, which we wrote about above. You can also use white thread, which should be pulled over the pegs, then in 2-3 weeks our winged friends will lose interest in the emerged shoots. After ripening the seeds, they again try to get to the sunflowers. To scare them away, it will be possible to use thin strips of fabric, gauze, newspapers and foil. A great idea would be to use CDs that will flicker when exposed to sunlight and scare away intruders.
There is another option that will protect the culture from the invasion of birds. You will need a bag of gauze light color. In it, you need to make several small holes for ventilation, then put on a pollinated seed box.
Harvesting and storage
The fact that the sunflowers are ripe and you can start harvesting are indicated by the following symptoms:
• the back of the basket turned yellow,
• reed flowers wilted and fell,
• the color of the seeds corresponds to the norm of the variety and hybrid,
• most of the leaves are withered.
Note that there are 3 degrees of ripeness of sunflowers, which can be judged by the moisture level of the seeds and the color of the baskets:
1. Yellow. The color of the leaves and the back of the basket becomes lemon yellow, and the humidity of the seeds reaches 30-40%, which indicates biological ripeness.
2. Brown. Baskets acquire a dark brown color, and seed moisture is 12-14% (ripeness).
3. Complete. Plants become dry, brittle, and seeds crumble (humidity is 10-12%).
You can harvest sunflowers when the basket reaches a dark brown color by 85-90%. If the collection is delayed for several days, a significant number of seeds may become unusable. Collected seeds must be cleaned and dried well. For storage, you can lay those whose humidity does not exceed 8%. Harvest is necessary with the help of a harvester that cuts the baskets and threshes them, after which the seeds are in the bunker, and the processed baskets are sent to animal feed or remain in the field.
How to store the crop?
When the crop is harvested, the heads of the sunflowers will need to be cut in half and hung to dry. It is advisable that the drying process take place in a well-ventilated area. After drying, you can shake out the seeds. There is a great way to improve their taste. To do this, leave the seeds in salt water for 10-12 hours, and then fry in the oven (the temperature should be low so that the seeds do not burn out). Due to the high percentage of fats contained in sunflower seeds, they can be stored for a long time. The most important thing is that the room is dry, and moisture does not get on the seeds.
Useful tips for growing sunflowers
We have collected the recommendations of experienced farmers who will help you plant, grow and harvest a good sunflower crop.
1. When choosing the soil for planting this crop, make sure that it is well-dried and fertilized with peat and compost. Thanks to this, sunflowers will grow tall, large and strong.
2. Do not plant a large amount of sunflower with a lack of space. These plants need free space - if it is not enough, their stems will be very fragile.
3. At the time of planting, consider that this culture is photophilous, so it always needs sun. Because of this, sunflowers can grow too tall and block other plants from accessing the sun.
4. Sunflowers cannot stand the cold, so it is better to plant them in warm weather.
5. To protect the seeds from annoying birds and insects, you need to cover the basket with a net, which will not allow pests to reach them.
6. Remember to weed the area around the sunflowers.
Even a novice gardener will be able to grow sunflowers and harvest a rich crop if he responsibly treats the preparation of planting material, timely watering, removing weed grass and controlling pests. Subject to the sunflower cultivation technology, you will be able to harvest a magnificent crop with incredibly tasty and oily seeds.
The most popular varieties for Moscow region, St. Petersburg and other regions
Varietal diversity complicates the seed selection process. When buying, you need to focus on the popularity of varieties and climate features. Get a better harvest more likely with proven varieties of sunflower. This culture is grown in summer cottages, both in the Moscow Region, St. Petersburg and in the southern regions. Which variety to plant, decide for yourself.
The hybrid is characterized by high productivity, resistance to drought and diseases (white rot, ash rot, fomose, fomopsis). Not afraid of plants and weeds (clogs). Sunflower medium early ripening, vegetation lasts 110-120 days. The height of the stem with a basket is 140-150 cm. The variety is recommended for cultivation in the steppes and forest-steppe zones.
Three-linear hybrid with a growing period of 100-110 days. The height of the stem reaches 165-170 cm. Strong immunity promotes resistance to white and gray rot, phomopsis. Seeds contain a high rate of oil - up to 55%. Productivity is 39-41 kg / ha.
The hybrid of the Dutch selection is resistant to herbicides. The peculiarity of the variety is the low requirements for cultivation of the soil. Technical ripeness occurs 100-110 days after emergence on the surface of the ground. The oil content in seeds is about 55%. It is not recommended to sow in the fields where there were outbreaks of phomopsis.
Early ripening variety with a growing season of about 85 days. 54% oil. Plant height - up to 168 cm. Buzuluk variety is stable under different climatic conditions, drought-resistant. This is a variety of intensive direction, it requires high-quality agricultural technology and the use of fertilizers.
Before planting, seed must be properly prepared. The process includes sorting (selection of large healthy seeds) and soaking for 14 hours in a weak solution of potassium permanganate. In order to accelerate germination and receive friendly seedlings, the nuclei are treated with growth biostimulants. Fungicides and insecticides can be added to the solution to increase the resistance of young shoots to diseases and pests.
Before sowing a sunflower, you should seriously approach the choice of a site for planting. Culture needs the sun, so the place should be well-lit and ventilated. An ideal option is fertile soil with a small amount of clay. However, the plant can adapt to any environment, with the exception of acidic, saline and marshy.
The soil for planting sunflowers after crops and corn is just perfect
It is better to start preparing the site in the country in the fall, carefully removing all plant debris from it and digging a shovel to the depth of the bayonet. At the same time as digging, mineral fertilizers should be introduced.
Sowing patterns and embedment depth
Let's see how to sow a sunflower and what is the optimal depth of cultivation? It is necessary to plant seeds in moist soil to a depth of 6-8 cm. In each nest you need to lay 2-3 seeds. When planting large plant varieties, an interval of at least 1 m is observed; for medium-sized varieties, a distance of 60 cm is considered acceptable. The more space between holes, the larger the kernels of the new crop.
Many gardeners puzzle over how to arrange a sunflower planting. Some adapted to plant the plant along the fence (leave between 65-75 cm between the holes, at least 30 cm from the fence). True, it must be clarified that the fence should be in the form of a mesh, so as not to create shading. As an option plant sunflower between beds of cucumbers or other vegetable crops that get along well with each other (a square-nesting method of 50x70 cm is suitable). No less interesting is landing along the path (the distance between the holes is 70 cm)
Proper seedling care and agricultural technology
So that the seeds in the baskets are large, you need to make some efforts: provide irrigation, timely top-up, loosen the soil and remove weed grass, carry out inter-row cultivation. A good addition would be periodic plantation treatments to prevent diseases and pests.
Irrigate fields or beds with sunflower need regularly until 4 pairs of leaves are formed on the young shoot. Further watering is carried out as necessary. Increase water consumption or increase the regularity of its introduction into the soil should be during the development of inflorescences and seed filling.
Sunflower needs to be watered every day.
Soil is saturated with moisture to the depth of the roots. In hot weather, irrigation is carried out daily. If a prolonged high temperature with a low level of air humidity is established, then you need to water the beds or fields several times a day. This will help form large nuclei.
In order to grow and get a good crop, a sunflower needs regular feeding. The first is introduced after the formation of the third pair of sheets. Superphosphate (20-40 gr. Per 1 m2) is used as fertilizer. It is scattered on the ground, after which it is closed to a depth of 10 cm and watered.
Mineral and organic fertilizers will contribute to increased productivity and accelerated development of sunflowers
The second lure is introduced after the formation of the basket. At this stage, potassium-nitrogen fertilizers are more suitable (a tablespoon of potassium sulfate is added to a bucket of mullein solution). When ripening seeds use the same composition.
Pests and Prevention
Failure to comply with agricultural regulations jeopardizes harvesting. The greatest problems arise when a disease is detected. Among the most dangerous, the following fungal infections stand out.
- Downy mildew (peronosporosis) characterized by the following features: fading leaves, thinning of the stem, white coating on the underside of the foliage. If the culture is infected twice in one season, then another symptom is added - small oily spots on the tops. With the development of the fungus in the active phase, the basket is damaged, as a result of which it ceases to develop.
- Often, plants are affected by black spotting, which is recognized by dark necrotic spots, growing over time to sizes of 4-5 cm. Other signs indicate infection: numerous cracks in the attachment of the petiole to the stem, dark spots on the petioles are elongated.
- Gray spotting it affects almost the entire plant, forming dark spots with an angular shape on the leaves, petioles, stems, with a gray outline. Over time, parts of the plant dry out and fall off.
- With bacteriosis plant tissues rot, become covered with mucus. If you do not process the culture, it will fade and dry.
Crop damage can also be caused by parasite insects:
- steppe crickets - attack the plant at the stage of formation of the first leaves, destroy the growth point,
- weevil - parasites bite the stem of young shoots, eat cotyledon leaves, sprouts that have not yet appeared on the surface of the soil eat,
- meadow moths - the larvae are gluttonous, eat almost the entire leaf part of the culture, destroy the epidermis in baskets and stems,
- gnawing scoops - insects at the stage of the caterpillars eat up the stem near the root zone,
- Chafer - parasite larvae damage the root system of the plant.
Sunflower crops begin to be harvested when the plant reaches full maturity. The basket and leaves dry out, become brown (brown) in color. Ripe seeds accumulate enough oils, kernels become hard, and the peel takes on the appropriate shade. The whole planted field as a whole is also evaluated. If the indicator of the remaining plants with yellow petals does not exceed 15%, the harvesting season begins.
The composition of the culture includes minerals and vitamins useful for the body, essential oils. You can use seeds for culinary and medicinal purposes. When planting in large areas, you can replenish stocks of vegetable oil for the winter. Agricultural technology for growing sunflower is not at all difficult to master.