Useful Tips

Rules of firing from TT, PM, PSM pistols

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Charging and unloading the PM pistol


Fig. 36. Ammunition store ammunition

Fig. 37. Removing cartridges from the magazine

To load a pistol at the command "Charge" or a self-shooting must:
- remove the gun from the holster, remove the magazine from the base of the handle, put the gun into the holster,
- equip the magazine with cartridges, for which, holding the magazine in your left hand, with your right hand put the cartridges into the magazine one after the other, pressing with your thumb until the cartridge protrudes over the upper bent edges of the side walls of the magazine, push the capsule close to the back of the store’s case,
- remove the gun from the holster and insert the magazine into the base of the handle,
- send the cartridge into the chamber of the barrel, for which turn off the fuse (lower the flag down), take the bolt with the left hand to its extreme rear position and release it,
- turn on the fuse (turn the fuse flag with the thumb of the right hand so that it closes the red circle) and put the gun in the holster.

Note. In a combat situation, the gun must be loaded in advance.

To completely stop shooting, the “Discharge” command is given.

On this command, the shooter must:
- stop pressing the tail of the trigger,
- turn on the fuse,
- defuse the gun.

To discharge the gun:
- remove the magazine from the base of the handle,
- turn off the fuse (lower the flag down),
- remove the cartridge from the chamber, for which, holding the gun in the right hand by the handle, with the left hand take the bolt back and release it, lift the cartridge thrown out of the chamber from the chamber (the floor) and wipe it with rags,
- turn on the fuse,
- put the gun in the holster,
- remove the cartridges from the magazine: taking the magazine in your left hand, with the right hand thumb move the cartridges one by one forward along the magazine feeder and grab them with a bark of the same hand,
- remove the gun from the holster, insert the magazine into the base of the handle, put the gun into the holster again and fasten the cover of the holster.

Fig. 38. The position of the pistol and magazine in the hand at the command "Weapon - for inspection"

At the command “Weapons - for inspection”, the shooter is obliged:
- remove the magazine with the left hand from the base of the gun handle and put it under the thumb of the right hand in front of the fuse so that the magazine feed is 2-3 cm higher than the shutter,
- after inspection of the weapon by the shooting leader, take the store in his left hand,
- with the thumb of your right hand, press the shutter delay button and release the shutter,
- by pulling the trigger, trigger the trigger trigger,
- put the fuse in the "protection" position,
- insert the magazine into the base of the handle,
- Insert the gun into the holster and fasten the cover of the holster.

Charging and discharging the machine gun Ak74 (RPK74 machine gun)

Fig. 39. Equipment magazine cartridges

To load the machine (machine gun) you need:
- attach an equipped magazine to the machine gun (machine gun), if it was not previously attached to it,
- remove the machine (machine gun) from the fuse,
- put the translator on the necessary type of fire,
- vigorously pull the bolt frame back to failure and release it,
- put the machine (machine gun) on the fuse if there is no immediate opening of fire or the Fire command was not followed, and transfer the right hand to the pistol grip.

If the magazine was not equipped with cartridges before loading the machine gun (machine gun) or the cartridges were used up during firing, it is necessary to equip the store.

To equip the magazine with cartridges, you need to take the magazine in the left hand with the neck up and the convex side to the left, and in the right hand - the cartridges with bullets to the little finger so that the bottom of the sleeve slightly rises above the thumb and forefinger.

While holding the magazine with a slight slope to the left, press the thumb to insert cartridges one at a time under the bends of the side walls with the bottom of the sleeve to the back of the store.

To equip a magazine with cartridges from a holder, it is necessary: ​​to take the magazine into the left hand, attach the adapter to it with its right hand so that its bends fit into the corresponding grooves on the neck of the magazine, holding the magazine in your left hand, insert the cartridge clip into the adapter with your right hand, In this case, the cartridges must be directed upwards by pressing the right finger with the index finger on the sleeve case (at the bottom) of the upper cartridge and passing the clip between the middle and index fingers, drown the cartridges in the magazine, remove the empty clip from the adapter, put a new clip of ammunition and dosnaryadit store, removed from store adapter. The use of a clip accelerates the magazine’s equipment with cartridges.

To equip the holder with cartridges, insert it into the adapter so that it fits into the grooves of the adapter and rests against its stop.

Fig. 40. Equipment store cartridges from a clip:
1 - magazine, 2 - adapter, 3 - clip, 4 - cartridges


Fig. 41. Equipment ammunition cartridges:
a - with an adapter, b - without an adapter


Fig. 42. Removing cartridges from a magazine

Fig. 43. The machine is prepared for inspection in a standing position

Holding the clip with the adapter in the left hand, with the right hand, holding the cartridge by the bullet and the upper part of the sleeve with three fingers (thumb, index and middle), insert it into the grooves of the clip (Fig. 41, a).

The holder can be equipped with cartridges without an adapter, for this, take the holder in the left hand, and in the right - the cartridge, pressing the spring hook, insert a bullet between the holder and the spring (drown the hook), insert the cartridges into the grooves of the holder (Fig. 41, b) , remove the cartridge bullet from under the spring of the cage.

To discharge the machine (machine gun) you need:
- separate the store,
- remove the machine (machine gun) from the fuse,
- slowly take the bolt frame back by the handle, remove the cartridge from the chamber and release the bolt frame,
- pull the trigger (pull the trigger from the combat cock),
- put the machine (machine gun) on the fuse,
- take it "on the belt" if the shooting was conducted from a standing position, or put (lower the machine gun butt) on the ground if shooting was carried out from a prone position,
- remove the cartridges from the magazine and attach it to the machine gun (machine gun),
- pick up the cartridge extracted from the chamber.

To remove the cartridges from the magazine, you need to take the magazine in your left hand with the neck up, supporting projection towards you, with your right hand with the cartridge, moving the cartridges one by one from you, remove them from the magazine.

After unloading, if necessary, the commander gives the command: "Weapon - for inspection."

For this command you need:
in the supine position: separate the magazine and put it near the machine (machine gun) with its neck toward you, remove the machine (machine gun) from the fuse, take the bolt frame back by the handle and turn the machine (machine gun) a little to the left, after inspecting the chamber and magazine commander, release the bolt frame forward, pull the trigger from the combat cock (press the trigger), put the machine (machine gun) on the fuse and attach the store to the machine (machine gun),
in a standing position: holding the machine (machine gun) with the left hand behind the forend, separate the store with the right and put it in the left hand with the feeder up (the convex part from yourself), with your fingers to press the store to the forearm of the machine (machine gun), remove the machine (machine gun) with the fuse, take the bolt frame back and turn the machine (machine gun) a little to the left.

After inspecting the chamber and magazine by the commander, release the bolt frame forward, pull the trigger from the combat cock (press the trigger), put the machine gun (machine gun) on the fuse, attach the store and take the machine gun (machine gun) to the “belt” position or take the machine gun to the leg .

Loading and unloading the PKT machine gun installed in the control room

The machine gun is loaded in the following order:
- making sure that the toggle switch email descent on the control panel the control unit is in position off, install the cartridge box with the curb tape in the box holder and fix it with the latch,
- open the cover of the machine gun receiver, for which, with the thumb of the right hand, press the latch, and with the left hand lift the receiver cover,
- with your right hand, pull out part of the tape from the box and put it into the receiver so that the first cartridge with the bottom edge of the sleeve goes beyond the hooks of the extractor
- close the receiver cover.

To put the control unit in the mode Job necessary:
- toggle switch email descent and aim set to ON,
- open the protective cover for firing at air targets at an elevation angle of more than 15º,
- open the curtain of the camouflage cap,
- take the bolt frame by the reload handle back and move the handle forward,
- press the power button and, holding it, fire in short or long bursts.

To stop shooting, just release the power button.

Attention! After the cessation of shooting the machine gun remains chargedthat you should always remember and take precautions. To continue firing, you must again press the power button.

The cessation of shooting can be temporary (change of cartridge box) and complete.

If the firing is temporarily stopped, the machine gunner must stop pressing the power release button, clear the sleeve of the sleeve of the withdrawal sleeve from the sleeves and links (unfasten the bag, empty the sleeves and links, fasten the bag), replace the cartridge box and continue shooting.

When the shooting stops completely, turn off the toggle switches aim and EL Descent, close the cover of the tower outlet, close the protective cover and the curtain of the camouflage cap.

The machine gun is unloaded in the following order:
- make sure that the toggle switch on the control panel of the control unit email descent standing in position off,
- open the receiver cover, remove the tape from the receiver and put it into the cartridge box,
- raise the base of the receiver and remove the remaining cartridge from it,
- holding the bolt frame by the reload handle, press the trigger with your left hand and gently push the bolt frame forward,
- close the cover of the receiver,
- clean the sleeve of the sleeve of the tap of the sleeves and links.

TT GUN SHOOTING

Weapons, as a rule, are used when other methods and means of resolving the conflict have been exhausted or it is impossible to use them.

Therefore, it is not enough just to have a gun in your pocket or holster, you need to be able to use it wisely, because only then will Tokarev become a reliable friend you can rely on. You must also remember the mortal danger of presumptuous handling of this gun.


Remember once and for all the following rules for handling weapons:
• know the device and features of your weapon,
• regularly clean and lubricate your weapons,
• do not carry a defective weapon, do not expect to “take to fright” with it,
• never point a gun at anyone without the intention to shoot,
• do not store the gun at home with ammunition,
• never give your gun to anyone, much less let him shoot from it,

• constantly train in methods of handling weapons and shooting.
A thorough shooting practice is required before you can confidently say that you know how to shoot a pistol. Training with him should consist of practicing the following techniques:
removing the gun, loading, stand, aiming, pulling the trigger, changing the magazine, eliminating possible delays, moving with weapons.

Immediately before firing, you must carefully wipe the bore and the chamber, as well as check the operation of the mechanisms. After wiping the barrel, it should be carefully inspected and make sure there are no foreign objects there. Before loading the gun, the bolt must be sharply pulled back several times and released. This advice is especially relevant at low ambient temperatures. This will reduce the resistance to subsequent movement of the shutter and parts of the trigger and will contribute to the reliable operation of the gun at the beginning of shooting.

Further, according to army canons, in order to take a standing position, it is necessary to:
• turn halfway to the left and, without putting the right foot, put it forward towards the target so that the legs are shoulder width apart,
• unfasten the cover and remove the gun from the holster,
• hold the gun vertically with the muzzle up at the level of the right eye,
• the left arm should be freely lowered along the body or laid behind the back.

When shooting from a knee it is required:
• put the left foot back so that the toe of the foot is against the heel of the right foot,
• quickly fall down on the left knee and sit on the heel of the left foot, keep the right foot from the knee to the foot as straight as possible, the toe of the foot in the direction of the target,
• remove the gun from the holster, turn off the fuse.

When shooting while lying down:
• take a full step with your right foot forward and a little to the right,
• leaning forward, drop down on your left knee and put your left hand on the ground in front of you, leaning successively on the thigh of the left foot and the forearm of the left hand, you must lie on your left side and quickly turn on your stomach,
• remove the gun from the holster and remove the fuse.

So, exactly according to the instructions, everything must be done? Experts say that this is not necessary. It is only important that all operations on the preparation and firing are carried out in a naturally free manner, without enslavement of the body, without strain of vision, muscles of the arms, legs, in general, without nerves and trembling knees.

An important question for the shooter: how to keep weapons when shooting? The choice here is small - with one or two hands. When holding the gun with one hand, fold the thumb and forefinger so that the handle rests freely on the back of the connecting fabric between the fingers, and the trigger guard rests on the middle finger. Move your index finger to the side and squeeze the remaining fingers until the gun is held firmly. Do not strain muscles, do not “strangle” the gun, hold it freely, without trembling in the hand. Put the first (nail) phalanx of the index finger on the trigger and - you can aim. In this case, breathe evenly, according to the formula of shallow breathing.

Deep, noisy breathing, as well as its long delays, will not bring any benefits - fatigue sets in, hands begin to tremble even more. In the final stage of aiming, just before the shot, a respiratory pause of four to five seconds is justified, during which you need to have time to pull the trigger.

When mastering the descent, it is possible for beginners to recommend a “soft descent”, in which the shooter pushes the trigger with the same “pulling” movement of the finger during the entire working stroke, until the trigger “suddenly” jumps off the platoon.
An experienced shooter who knows the nature of his trigger should use the “dry trigger” when the free (idle) stroke is quickly selected, the sight is refined, and a light final shot is fired.

In all cases, when possible, the gun should be held with both hands. The exception is situations when firing is carried out immediately after removing the weapon without aiming at ultra-short distances. The grip of the handle with two hands makes it easier to control his aiming and fire "deuces".

There are three main ways to hold the gun with both hands:
• support with a free hand for a shooting hand at the wrist,
• grip of the pistol grip over the firing hand
• support for shooting hands from below.

The choice of this or that method depends on the physical capabilities of the shooter and on the available skills. The weapon should be held as deep as possible in the hand to reduce the “throwing” moment that occurs when shooting. The smaller the distance between the line of the bore and the brush-forearm line, the easier it is to fire quickly and accurately.

When holding the pistol with both hands, it takes a minimum time to restore the crashed after the previous shot. The real achievable combat rate of a TT pistol is eight aimed shots at targets located along the front in seven to nine seconds. Combat rate of fire characterizes the ability of a weapon to maintain a tip after a shot. It is an aggregate characteristic of a weapon and depends on the capacity of the store, the speed of its replacement and the stability of the weapon when firing. The stability of the pistol when shooting depends, in turn, on the ratio of the recoil momentum, the mass of the weapon and its design.

Roughly stability can be estimated as the ratio of muzzle energy to the mass of weapons. For a TT pistol, this value is 3.5 J, which is in the range that allows the shooter to control recoil after a shot. Since the axis of the barrel bore of the gun, in comparison with most other samples, is located closer to the “forearm-brush” line, the recoil force is perceived mainly as a controlled push back, not knocking down the tip and not turning the brush up, which provides a smaller muzzle jump cut the trunk up.

During breaks in shooting, the first thing to always do is to check the condition of the parts and mechanisms of the weapon, clean them of dust, dirt and, if possible, lubricate.

Для увеличения останавливающего действия пули наиболее результативным окажется попадание в область груди или таза, где у человека имеется значительное количество костей, и пуля имеет все шансы повредить какую-нибудь из них.

Replacement of the TT pistol magazine takes place differently than in the familiar Makarov scheme. It looks like this:
1. By pressing the store button, forget about its existence - it will fall out under the influence of its weight. Remember that this method of replacing a store can only be used in exceptional situations, where it is expensive every moment and you don’t care whether the store falls into the dirt, dust or deforms when it hits the asphalt.
2. With your free hand, slide the new magazine into the handle until the latch latch clicks distinctively.
These actions should be worked out to automaticity, since during reloading your eyes should look at the target, and not at the store.

Silencer for TT
Installing a silencer on a TT pistol is an ungrateful, and often dangerous, task. The design of the gun and the cartridge used are in no way designed for this. On most powerful army pistols, silencers are not installed due to
their low efficiency, bulkiness and unreliability.

Mounting a silencer disrupts the normal operation of automatic weapons. Firstly, the massive part fixed at the end of the trunk creates an increased load on the barrel earring and on the axis of the slide retention, which can cause them to break. Secondly, an increase in the total mass of the moving parts of the gun by thirty to fifty percent reduces the recoil speed below the minimum required shutter of the gun, there may not be enough energy to reliably send the next cartridge into the chamber, and your gun will turn into a “stutter”.

In addition to these reasons, there is another, no less important: the sense in the muffler is only when ammunition with a subsonic initial bullet speed is used for firing. A bullet from a TT pistol takes off at a speed of more than 420 meters per second, and the speed of sound, as you know, is 340 meters per second. In this case, the shock wave created by the bullet flying at supersonic speed will negate the entire effect of installing a silencer — the power of the sound of the shock wave is comparable to the sound of powder gases expiring at the time of the shot.

Manual reloading of cartridges
Mastering the skills of pistol shooting is associated with a significant expenditure of expensive ammunition. According to the most conservative estimates, in order to learn to shoot accurately, be prepared to “burn” more than one hundred rounds of ammunition at the firing line. The cost of acquiring so many cartridges is commensurate with the cost of the weapon itself.

Abroad found a way out in the manual reloading of cartridges. This can significantly reduce the cost of training, since in this case only consumable components are purchased: capsules, bullets and gunpowder, and the most expensive component of the cartridge - the sleeve - can be used repeatedly. The savings are very significant. The cost of a homemade cartridge, as practice shows, is three to four times lower than the standard.

In the United States, local craftsmen, who apparently find special pleasure in experiments with various samples of gunpowder, types of bullets, got the hang of making this ammunition at home. Using ready-made bullets, which are suitable for firing from TTs in outer diameter, they equip cartridges manually using a variety of presses. The problem for those who want to manually re-load Tokarev cartridges is that it is impossible to insert a capsule of the Boxer system into the steel sleeve of this cartridge, which has long been replaced in the West with old, corrosive Berdan capsules.

Americans use turret cartridges of popular and widespread cartridges of caliber .38 “special” and .357 “magnum” for the manufacture of cartridges for TT cartridges. On a lathe, the diameter of the sleeve flange decreases to 9.95 mm, and the groove width increases for reliable operation of the pistol ejector. The next operation is to shorten the sleeve to 25.8 mm, then the most crucial stage begins - the formation of the “bottleneck” of the corresponding configuration. The last operation consists in the final cutting of the sleeve to a height of 25.02 mm. The sleeve remains ready for reloading, a sleeve suitable for installing a Boxer capsule. To equip cartridges, you can use bullets for the American M1 carbine.

The mass of the bullet of this cartridge depends on its type and ranges from 6.53 to 7.19 grams. After pressing the bullet into the sleeve, it is necessary to check the total length of the cartridge, which should be in the range of 34.8 to 35.05 mm - an excessively deep pressing of the bullet will increase the pressure of the powder gases, and an increase in the total length can cause the cartridge to stick at the moment of dispatch . It must be remembered that this pistol shoots reliably only with cartridges with whole-shell military-style bullets, therefore, before moving on to cartridges with expansive bullets, you need to check the reliability of the weapon with similar ammunition.

You should be extremely careful when experimenting with samples of gunpowder. The optimal charge mass is considered to be one that provides a 5.5 gram bullet with an initial flight speed ranging from 430 to 490 meters per second, and for a 7 gram bullet - 300-350 meters per second. In the absence of such bullets, a surrogate substitute can be shortened bullets from a Kalashnikov assault rifle of 7.62 mm caliber. But we must remember that experimenting with bullets is not safe, Beware of jamming the barrel when shooting.

A detailed description of this “technological process” is given in the hope that such an experience will be useful for domestic shooters or, at least, will warn someone from frivolous actions.

PM GUN SHOOTING

Shooting from PM in regular situations is not much different from shooting from other pistols, including TT. The difference can only be in the volume of functions that are performed using this gun and adequate measures for the development of techniques and shooting skills. From this point of view, PM is a unique phenomenon in the weapons world.

For several decades, he has been practically the only domestic staff model of personal weapons for the army and police, and today for the numerous security services of security companies and commercial structures. Therefore, firing from the PM should cover the whole range of conditions, from the development of elementary concepts to shooting techniques in extreme situations.

Naturally, the basis of training is the development of primary skills of accurate shooting and the development of a general culture of handling weapons. A good basis for mastering the initial skills is a manual on shooting training, which today is customary to criticize uncontrollably for its one-sidedness. But, I think, such a manual should not be a "cookbook" for all occasions. There are other developments for this, which, exactly, should supplement this document.

In general, deepening shooting skills in difficult conditions, it is necessary to focus on the following types of it:

• advance shooting,
• offhand shooting,
• shooting on the move,
• shooting in the dark,
• shooting with a quick change of scenery,
• shooting from behind the shelter,
• shooting indoors.

Of course, the question arises of how such a multifaceted process of shooting training looks in practice and how much ammunition will be needed for this? The problem, indeed, exists, but there are real ways to solve it, which consist in using modern training technologies using optoelectronic computer systems for modeling shooting training in extreme conditions.

For example, the family of simulators OET-RS, OET-MA, OET-RA, OET-AK allows you to teach techniques and rules for firing, measures for safe handling of weapons, practice the processes of aiming and pulling the trigger with accuracy corresponding to firing from military weapons.

Training systems with a more developed program structure make it possible to solve this problem in situations modeled using various scenarios of group and single actions with shooting and using other special tools (Ramge-2000 system).

Training with the use of standard PM ammunition with this approach is minimized, it consists mainly in conducting control firing and stabilizing the psycho-volitional qualities of the shooter. A certain stage in mastering the art of precision shooting is to know the "character" of your pistol.

It is not enough just to have a gun in your pocket or in a holster, you need to be able to use it wisely, only then Makarov will become a reliable friend you can rely on. Keep in mind the mortal danger of presumptuous gun handling. Respect for him is necessary, because someday he can save your life.

It is necessary to remember once and for all the following rules for handling weapons:

• a gun may one day become the most necessary thing for you,
• clean your weapons as often as possible,
• never point a gun at anyone without the intention to shoot,
• never give your gun to anyone, moreover, do not let him shoot from it,
• know the device and features of your weapon,
• constantly train in methods of handling weapons and shooting.

“Makarov” is not the last word of weapons technology on the way to achieving high results in combat shooting. The design of the Walter-PP pistol, which is the basis for the design of our pistol, limits the PM's capabilities in high-speed shooting, since the return spring located around the barrel can significantly heat up and lose its mechanical properties during intensive shooting.

Among the features of this gun, forcing to make adjustments to the methodology of training in practical shooting, include the design of the fuse and the presence of self-cocking, requiring a fairly large effort on the trigger. When the pistol is fused, the trigger is released from the combat platoon, forcing the self-cocking to produce the first shot, thereby reducing the likelihood of being hit by the first shot.

The gun is distinguished by the smoothness of forms and the completeness of lines, which, in general, creates a feeling of its compactness and lightness. Indeed, when you take it in your hand, the first feeling that the gun is not very heavy - it fully justifies its description as a lightweight compact PM model.

Among its shortcomings include the poor location on the handle of the ring for the strap. If you are left-handed, then when shooting from the PM you will constantly feel how it crashes into the palm of your hand.

All over the world it is considered normal when a new gun can afford a couple of delays when shooting. Usually, after a certain shot, the parts are rubbed against each other, as if “falling into place”. However, half a century of continuous improvement of the design and development of PM manufacturing technology has led to the fact that even with a new gun, freshly cleaned from factory preservation grease, you can feel confident in any, the “coolest” mess.

The execution of the store is reliable and simple. Although the wings of the store pose a risk of injury, they do their job perfectly. Many gun owners charge only seven rounds of ammunition to the magazine, which at the same time simplifies the process of loading cartridges and increases the life of the supply spring. Savvy Americans could not come to terms with the fact that with the introduction of cartridges into the store, injuries to the hand are possible, and for the second year in the United States, a plastic loading accelerator is offered for four dollars.

If you have a desire to increase the capacity of the gun by one more cartridge, then you can advise when loading the gun to remove the magazine and reload the chamber with an additional cartridge. Just do not turn this into a permanent practice, since a loaded gun is a source of increased danger, and the magazine spring is not designed for such operating conditions. The wide windows on the sides of the store make it easy to control the filling of the store and determine the number of rounds in it.

The moment of fixing the store in the handle is very clearly defined, and if you correctly inserted the store once, then no more difficulties are expected. The only negative point is the need for a sufficiently large effort when wringing the lower end of the mainspring, especially for a new pistol. A pistol magazine is equipped with eight rounds in an average of ten to eleven seconds. It takes three to four seconds to replace the store.

The fuse is located very conveniently, when removing the pistol from the holster, the finger itself rests on the fuse, and it turns off by the natural movement of the finger covering the handle.

When shooting, the front sight of the gun in the slot of the sight seems very small, which makes it difficult to aim, because it is difficult to control its slight lateral movements and focus on it. A not-so-experienced shooter in this case will inevitably miss.

The handle of the Makarov pistol is not very comfortable to hold, which suggests that it is not the last word of weapon ergonomics. That is why there is no full contact of the hand with the gun, and, therefore, it is impossible to accurately assess its position, which makes it difficult to control during shooting. Unsuccessful, in our opinion, the ratio of the thickness of the handle to its width leads to the fact that the force applied to the handle does not act in the same plane as the barrel channel, which, as it were, "turns" the gun to the right, so you have to apply considerable force, which, naturally negatively affects the results of the shooting.

With the existing shape of the handle, the grip could become more complete if the trigger was located a little closer to it. It also influenced the fact that the index finger would have less “work” associated with holding the weapon in hand. The course of the descent is very long, and while you squeeze it, the thought of pulling quickly comes to mind more than once. After the shot, the gun barrel bounces, but then returns to its original position and, not reaching the end, freezes at a certain angle. This is because the "tight" descent causes tension in the carpal muscles.

A similar effect is observed when firing from all pistols and revolvers with a large descent force and a center of gravity shifted to the handle. After the shot, when the pressure of the index finger disappears, the palm muscles do not have time to relax and "turn" the gun up.

When firing "doublet" this leads to the fact that a weapon jump causes an overestimation of the point of impact of the second shot. As for firing from the PM, held with both hands, the rounded shape of the trigger guard makes it impossible to fix the weapon with the index finger on the trigger guard. In a flail, the sensation when firing from the PM is very different from the impression made by shooting from a sports small-caliber pistol or APS and the Nagan revolver. The main difference is the small "informational content" of the weapon, which makes it impossible to evaluate the result of the shot by the terms of certain actions, or, as the arrow-athletes say, "it is impossible to mark the shot." The recoil of PM, even when using the most powerful cartridges, is not large, however, preference should be given to semi-orthopedic handles rather than a standard plastic overlay.

The cocking force is 3800 grams, cocking the fuse - 2200 grams, while the western counterparts - no more than 1500 grams. The greatest effort has to be made when removing the store - about four and a half kilograms.

The insufficient stopping effect of a 9x19 mm cartridge when confronting a large physique with a criminal requires at least two shots at a time. For a Makarov pistol, which has a muzzle energy of almost two times less, this is more than relevant. Even more important in such cases is the ability to conduct targeted shooting in motion. Combining active movements with shooting is a difficult task and cannot be independently trained. Leaving for cover, a change of position when shooting from a knee will take away from you several precious moments that may turn out to be decisive.

The accuracy of the pistol is within the requirements for weapons of this class. With an army sighting, it is considered normal if the holes on the target at a distance of 25 meters lie in a circle with a diameter of 15 centimeters, and the average point of impact deviates by no more than five centimeters from the center of the target.

It takes an average of 1.2 seconds to produce the first shot, that is, to remove the pistol from the holster and remove it from the fuse, although after a special training this figure can be halved. With the highest possible rate of fire at a distance of five meters, holes from five shots are stacked in a circle with a diameter of 200 mm.

It should be noted that in the conditions of street fighting, any person, even an athlete who sent all bullets to the “top ten” in a shooting range, may be confused and lose their advantage over a person shooting, maybe not so accurately, but quickly and desperately.

Manual reloading of cartridges
Уверенность в оружии, навыки грамотного обращения с ним и хорошие результаты в стрельбе невозможны без постоянных тренировок в тире или на стрельбище. Если вы хотите научиться метко стрелять, то будьте готовы "сжечь" на огневом рубеже не одну сотню патронов.

За рубежом нашли выход в ручном пере снаряжении патронов, что позволяет существенно снизить затраты на тренировки. В данном случае закупаются только расходуемые компоненты: капсюли, пули и порох, а самый дорогостоящий компонент патрона -гильза - может использоваться несколько раз. The savings are very significant. For example, the cost of one 9x19 mm caliber cartridge is about 40 cents, with independent equipment it will cost the American shooter 14 cents, as for the other popular cartridge, the famous “forty-fifth” revolver, the difference is even more noticeable: seven cents versus 45.

The problem for those who want to manually reload PM cartridges is that it is impossible to install a Boxer system capsule in the steel sleeve of this cartridge, which has long been replaced in the West with old, corrosive weapons, Berdan capsules. Obviously, domestic owners of weapons will soon have such an opportunity, as our arms merchants establish ever closer ties with foreign manufacturers. If there is a demand for components for re-equipment, then there is no doubt that they will soon appear in our stores.

True, you should be extremely careful when experimenting with samples of gunpowder. The optimal charge mass is considered to be one that provides an initial speed of flight of a bullet weighing six grams in the range from 280 to 350 meters per second.

Some details of this "technological process" have already been given in the "TT" section, so this experience may turn out to be painful for domestic shooters.

Shooting Delays
The work of TT and PM pistols has been tested over many years by the practice of their use in the most diverse and difficult conditions. They have confirmed their reputation as a reliable, stable, easy-to-use weapon. However, one must always be prepared for the fact that a weapon, even in rare cases, can “be capricious”. The main type of such "vagaries", called in technical terms "removable failures", are delays, the nature of which is the same for TT and PM pistols.

Most often, delays occur due to improper preparation of the gun for shooting and neglect of it, for example, due to inattentive checking of the condition of the weapon before shooting, careless cleaning of mechanisms, insufficient lubrication or poorly equipped stores and other omissions due to the shooter's fault.

Delays are much less common when firing due to breakdowns or wear of individual parts, however, in this case, most breakdowns do not occur suddenly, but because of a long-term violation of the correct interaction of the parts, which could be noticed and eliminated in time.

Excessive grease also often causes delays when firing with self-loading weapons. A large amount of thickened grease creates resistance when moving parts of the gun, so it should be applied in a thin layer using previously soaked rags. Incorrect stacking of cartridges with magazine equipment is also causing a lot of criticism. But still, the main percentage of delays during shooting is associated with an incomplete retraction of the shutter in the rear position, as well as with its unsharp forward movement. If a delay occurs, the weapon must be reloaded, however if this does not give a positive result, then it is still necessary to find out and eliminate the cause of its occurrence.

The main reasons for the delay

Failure of the cartridge in the chamber.
Poking a cartridge into the front wall of the magazine. Eliminate skew of the cartridge in the store. Turn the shutter.

Incomplete locking of the bore.
Loosening (breaking) of the return spring, thickening of the grease or contamination of the shutter grooves and protrusions of the frame, bruising and burrs on these surfaces. Cartridge or chamber contamination. Do not drop the ejector tooth. Perform gun maintenance.

Misfire.
These are delays, which mean the absence of a shot in the presence of a striking blow on the capsule. The reasons may lie either in the malfunction of the trigger mechanism (trigger), or in the low quality of the cartridges. If the cartridge capsule has a correct and deep stabbing of the striker, then the misfire is caused by a poor-quality cartridge, if the puncture trace is weak, improperly located or not at all, then the fault is in the trigger. A small output of the striker, its breakage or deformation, weakening or breakage of the mainspring, dirt or excess grease at the breech section of the barrel - all this can cause misfires when firing. Cock the trigger and pull the trigger again. If the shot did not happen, turn the shutter. If the trigger is faulty, repair it.

Non-retrieval of the sleeve.
A soiled chamber or cartridge, breakage of the ejector tooth or loosening of its spring. Tight extraction of the cartridges leads to the fact that the bolt, having lost a significant part of the energy for its extraction, does not reach its extreme rear position and does not throw the cartridge outside the arms. The sleeve either falls into the chamber again, or when the next cartridge is fed, it locks the bolt in the middle position. If the ejector hook slides from the edge of the liner or tears it off, leaving part of the liner in the chamber, then the next cartridge is pushed into the bottom of the unextracted liner, which causes the shutter to stop in the middle position.
Pull the shutter and thumb up the slide delay, remove the magazine. Press the delay and again sharply pull the shutter back. In severe cases, the sleeve is removed using accessories.

Infringement of the sleeve.
Thickening of the grease or contamination of the longitudinal grooves of the shutter and protrusions of the frame, wear of the ejector tooth, rupture, swelling of the sleeve. But the most formidable defect in infringement is the transverse rupture of the sleeve. The causes of the gap can be found both in the defect of the cartridge, and in defects in the weapon (dirt and shells in the chamber). Repeated cases of rupture of the sleeves indicate an increase in the gap between the bottom of the sleeve and the bottom of the cup cup. Correction of the defect consists in replacing and adjusting the pistol shutter during repair. Along with the transverse rupture of the liner, longitudinal ruptures also occur. The causes of the defect are basically the same as in the case of transverse rupture. Longitudinal cracks and tears are especially dangerous if located close to the cap of the sleeve. Tilt the gun to the right and, pulling the bolt, remove the sleeve from the weapon. If the sleeve is not removed, the shutter is delayed, and the sleeve is knocked out by a ramrod.

Poking a cartridge.
Incorrect arrangement of the upper cartridge, bending of the upper edges of the walls of the stores. Pull back the shutter and release. Correct the bend of the upper edges of the store.

Gate.
Gets on the shutter

Grip (hold) the gun

Hold the gun in your dominant hand. Your dominant hand should grasp the handle of the gun so that the thumb rests on the inside of the barrel.

  • Your middle finger, ring finger, and little finger should cover the outside and front of the handle.
  • The index finger should lie outside the trigger guard.
  • This way of holding the gun will give you the maximum amount of leverage needed to reduce the swing of the weapon in your hand during recoil.

Put your non-dominant hand on the other side of the handle. She will support the other hand, and will be an additional lever when shooting.

  • Place your hand as high as possible on the handle.
  • All four fingers should be under the trigger guard, and the index finger should firmly abut against its lower part.
  • The thumb should point forward and be in contact with the other thumb.

Pistol Rack

Take position when shooting. Stand straight with your feet firmly against the ground and point the gun at the target. Your legs should be shoulder width apart, your knees slightly bent.

  • This position will allow you to move easily while providing stability to your body.
  • Raise the gun in front of you. Your arms should be extended forward and slightly bent at the elbows. The gun should not be near your face.
  • Torso slightly tilt forward, imagine that you are “drilling” a wall with a drill. So you can maintain balance, despite recoil when shooting.

Aiming Technique

Take aim. Follow the instructions below to aim at the target correctly.

When shooting, both eyes are open (this is recommended, but not necessary). In this case, you need to aim with your dominant eye. With them you will see the target much better.

  • For most people, the dominant eye is on the same side as the dominant hand, but there are exceptions.
  • To determine which dominant eye you have, join your thumb and forefinger together in a ring. Then extend your arm and look through the ring at some distant object.
  • Start gradually bringing the ring closer to your face, keeping both eyes open, but don't look at it. As a result, you will bring your hand to your dominant eye.

During aiming, the front and rear of the gun must be in line. The gun has a rear sight and a front sight. When you aim, the front sight should be exactly centered between the two edges of the rear sight slot.

  • The front sight consists of one part, and the pillar of two parts with a slot.
  • Between the front sight and the edges of the slot of the rear sight should be the same distance.
  • The upper part of the front sight should also be flush with the edges of the rear sight.

Take aim. When you aim with a pistol, you will need to look at the rear sight, the front sight, and the target. Of course, it is physically impossible to look at all three subjects at once. Therefore, try to focus mainly on the front and rear sights. It is recommended that you focus on the front sight (closer to the muzzle of the gun).

  • The target should look a bit blurry. You should be able to see her, but she should be in the background and be less clear than the front and rear sights.
  • More specifically, you should concentrate on the front sight. It will help you determine the relative position of the gun to your target.

Choose a spot on the target. The target has three places to aim. No place is preferable to another, so you have to decide for yourself which one will be the most convenient for aiming.

  • You can aim directly at the center of the target. To do this, you need to accordingly direct the top of the front sight to the center. The line of the upper part of the front sight should also coincide with the horizontal line of the center of the target.
  • You can aim right under the bull's eye (this method of aiming is called 6:00 o’clock). In actual shooting, aim so that the upper part of the fly slightly protrudes beyond the lower part of the black field of the apple.
  • Or you can aim just below the bullseye (sub 6 aim). In actual shooting, the front sight should be directed approximately to the middle of the white part of the target field below the bullseye.

Concentrate. You will need patience and concentration. If you sloppy aim, then you will surely miss.

  • Before shooting, make sure that the front sight is correctly installed in the slots of the rear sight.
  • Take your time and be calm. If you worry and start trying to pull the trigger hard, you may lose your target and miss.

Press the trigger and fire. Do it confidently, evenly, and do not tighten.

  • Press the trigger evenly. Press only on the front of the trigger.
  • First pull the trigger until you begin to feel resistance.
  • Then continue to pull the trigger until you fire a shot. Try not to expect it, as this often leads to a miss.

Shooting safety

  • Be sure to hold your index finger on the bracket before shooting.
  • Point the gun in a safe direction. You should always point the gun away from people so as not to injure anyone or damage others' property. If you are in a shooting range, then hold the gun, pointing it downhill.
  • Consider your gun loaded even if it is not. This is necessary to prevent a possible tragedy.
  • You should clearly see where your target is, as well as all the space around it and beyond. It is important to make sure that all precautions are taken and that no one gets into the line of fire. The target should be located so as not to pose a danger to anyone or anything close to it. If you intend to shoot at private property, then make sure that there are no houses or businesses nearby.

According to the rules and regulations International Confederation of Practical Shooting (ICPS), or in English International Practical Shooting Confederation (IPSС) from the moment of its foundation, THREE “golden” basic safety rules for shooting were established, also called CODE ARROW:

2. I will only send weapons where I am going to shoot!

The gun is always holstered at the waist, a carbine or rifle — with the barrel up in the hands or in the gun stand, and only when the exercise is performed by the judge’s command does the weapon go towards the targets. The same applies to the handling of weapons outside of competition, for example, at home, at a shooting range and at a shooting range (Remember how many times you've heard about hunting accidents?)

3. My finger will lie on the trigger only when I see the target in the sights!

Literally means that the finger always lies outside the trigger, on the pistol frame, on top of the trigger guard, except for the moment of aiming and / or firing at the target (again, remember the cases when the owners of pistols shot themselves in the leg, and how they accidentally shot while cleaning the gun)

Experienced shooters will also name another rule:

4. I will always check what is in front of the targets and behind them

And they will be right, this must be done both at competitions and at training at shooting ranges, hunting and in any cases of shooting. An accidental person, a gape colleague, a mushroom picker in the forest, an animal at a shooting range - so you will at least avoid unpleasant circumstances.

You can read more about safe shooting, as well as the history of IPSC and the development of this wonderful sport in our article. Practical shooting.

Common Aiming Errors

Mistakes occur when aiming incorrectly. They occur if the front sight is not correctly installed in the slot of the rear sight. How correctly you aim can be determined by bullet hits in the target.

  • If the bullet lay below the center of the target, then when aiming the upper part of the front sight was below the upper edges of the slot of the rear sight.
  • If the bullet fell above the center of the target, then the upper part of the front sight was higher than the upper edges of the slot of the rear sight.
  • If the bullet fell to the right of the center, then the front sight was closer to the right side of the rear sight slot.
  • If the bullet fell to the left of the center of the target, then the front sight was located closer to the left side of the rear sight slot.

Parallel offset. Such an error occurs when the front sight and rear sight are set correctly, but throws up your hand when giving.

  • Everything will depend on where the return directs your hand - up or down. Accordingly, try to aim just above the center of the target or just below.

Errors in holding the gun. Parallel displacement is not the only mistake that can occur when shooting. Bullet holes in the target may also indicate other errors.

  • If the bullet hits the target closer to your dominant side, then you are likely to squeeze the gun too hard with your thumb or pull the trigger too hard. Accordingly, if the bullet fell to the other side from the center of the target, then you put too little pressure on the trigger.
  • If you’re right-handed and the bullet hit the lower right corner (or vice versa, if you’re left-handed), then you probably squeeze your gun too much when you pull the trigger. If you hit the lower left corner, then you most likely pull the trigger.
  • If you are right-handed, and the bullet hit the upper right corner (or vice versa, if you are left-handed), then you expect recoil when fired. If the bullet hit the upper left corner, then you also expect recoil or do not “follow the shot”.

Now you know (in theory) how to stand upright, hold a gun and aim from it at a target. It remains only to consolidate this knowledge in practice. Therefore - feel free to shoot!

And remember that MOST IMPORTANT - SAFETY!

General Provisions

Pistol shooting is carried out from a standing position, from a knee, lying down, from a hand and from an emphasis or when moving by a car, etc. All shooting techniques are performed quickly by the shooter without stopping observing the target.

83. Pistol shooting consists of the following techniques:

shooting preparations (loading a pistol, assuming a position for shooting),

production shot (aiming, pulling the trigger),

cease firing (the termination of pressing the tail of the trigger, the inclusion of a fuse, that is, putting it in the "protection" position, unloading the gun).

84. In battle, a pistol fire is conducted independently.

For training purposes, a command is given for shooting in various positions (approximately) "For such a purpose, lying (from the knee, standing) - the fire". According to this command, it is necessary to take the position indicated by the command, turn off the fuse (lower the flag down) and, aiming, fire a self-cocking. A shot at this command can also be fired with a preliminary cocking of a cock on a combat platoon. In this case, after putting the trigger on the cock, you need to aim and press the tail of the trigger.

85. Для выполнения приемов стрельбы, обеспечивающих наибольшую меткость и удобство действий стреляющего, каждый военнослужащий должен в: зависимости от своих индивидуальных особенностей выработать наиболее выгодное и устойчивое положение для стрельбы, добиваясь при этом однообраз­ного положения рукоятки в руке и наиболее удобного положения корпуса, рук и ног.

Изготовка к стрельбе

86. При изготовке к стрельбе по команде «Заряжай» стреляющий должен:

— вынуть пистолет из кобуры, извлечь магазин из основания рукоятки, вложить пистолет в кобуру,

Fig. 53.Ammunition magazine

- equip the magazine with cartridges, for which, holding the magazine in your left hand, put the cartridges one after the other with your right hand, pressing the cartridges with your thumb until the cartridge protrudes over the upper bent edges of the side walls of the magazine, push it with a capsule close to the back wall of the store’s case,

- remove the gun from the holster and insert the magazine into the base of the handle,

- send the cartridge into the chamber of the barrel, for which turn off the fuse (lower the flag down), take the bolt with the left hand to its extreme rear position and release it,

- turn on the fuse (turn the fuse flag with the thumb of the right hand so that it closes the red circle) and put the gun in the holster.

Note. In a combat situation, the gun must be loaded in advance.

87. To take a standing position necessary:

- turn half a turn to the left and, without placing the right foot, set it forward towards the target shoulder width (which is more convenient for growth), distributing the weight of the body evenly on both legs,

- unfasten the cover and remove the gun from the holster,

- hold the gun vertically with the muzzle up against the right eye, while maintaining the position of the hand at the height of the chin, the left hand should be freely lowered along the body or laid behind your back,

- while holding the gun with the muzzle up, place the thumb of the right hand on the fuse box and lower it down (turn off the fuse), put the index finger in the trigger guard without touching the trigger.

Fig. 54. Standing position

Notes: 1. When shooting with the left hand, the position of the body is the opposite, with the right hand, remove the gun from the holster and shift it to the left hand.

2. If the shooting will be conducted with a preliminary cocking of the trigger, and not self-cocking, then after turning off the fuse, you must put the trigger on the cocking cock by pressing the thumb of the right hand on the head of the trigger.

88. To accept the position for shooting from the knee you need to put your left foot back so that the toe of her foot is against the heel of the right foot,

Fig. 55. Position for shooting from the knee

quickly descend to the left knee and sit on the heel, keep the right leg from knee to foot as steeply as possible, the toe of the foot - in the direction of the target, remove the gun from the holster, turn off the fuse (lower the flag down), put the trigger on the cockpit, if shooting will be pre-cocked, hold the gun, as specified in Art. 87.

89. To accept the position for shooting lying you should take a full step with your right foot forward and slightly to the right,

Fig. 56. Position for shooting lying

leaning forward, drop down on your left knee and put your left hand on the ground in front of you with your fingers to the right, then, leaning successively on the thigh of the left foot and the forearm of the left hand, lie on your left side and quickly turn on your stomach, spreading your legs slightly to the sides with your socks outward. Take the gun out of its holster, turn off the fuse and put the trigger on the cockpit, as specified in Art. 87, if the shooting will be self-cocking, then after turning off the fuse, insert the index finger of the right hand into the trigger guard without touching the trigger.

Shot production

90. To fire a shot from all positions for shooting, you must: select the aiming point, without stopping observing the target, extend the right hand with the gun forward, hold the gun by the handle with the right hand, put the index finger of this hand with the first joint on the tail of the trigger, pull it out on the left side of the handle, the thumb of the right hand is parallel to the direction of the barrel,

Fig. 57. How to keep a gun when shooting

hold the extended right hand freely, without tension, hold the hand of this hand in the plane passing through the axis of the barrel bore and the elbow of the hand, do not squeeze the handle of the gun and keep it as uniform as possible.

91. For aiming hold your breath on a natural exhalation, squeeze the left eye, and look right through the slot of the rear sight on the front sight so that the front sight falls in the middle of the slot, and its top is on a par with the upper edges of the rear sight, in this position bring the gun under the aiming point (without dumping it) and simultaneously start pressing the tail of the trigger.

Fig. 58. Standing position

Note. If it is difficult for the shooter to close his left eye separately, he is allowed to aim with both eyes open.

92. Trigger trigger it is necessary, holding the breath, to gently press the first joint of the index finger on the tail of the trigger, until the trigger, unnoticed by the shooter, as if by itself, breaks off the combat platoon, i.e. until a shot occurs.

When cocked beforehand, it should be borne in mind that the trigger has some free play, in which the shot does not happen.

When you press the tail of the trigger, finger pressure to produce straight back. The shooter must gradually increase the pressure on the tail of the trigger during the time when the top of the flat fly coincides with the aiming point, when the front sight deviates from the aiming point, the shooter must, without increasing, but not easing the pressure, correct the aiming and, as soon as the front sight is again combined with the aiming point, again gradually increase the pressure on the tail of the trigger. When pulling the trigger, one should not be embarrassed by the slight fluctuations of the front sight at the aiming point, the desire to release the trigger is necessary at the moment of the best coincidence of the front sight with the aiming point, which can lead to a pulling of the trigger, and hence an inaccurate shot. If the shooter, pressing the tail of the trigger, feels that he can no longer breathe, it is necessary, without weakening and not increasing the pressure of the finger, take a breath and again holding it, continue to smoothly squeeze the tail of the trigger.

Cease firing

93. Cessation of firing may be temporary and complete.

To temporarily stop shooting command is given “Stop”. On this command, the shooter must stop pressing the tail of the trigger, holding the gun in his right hand, raise the fuse box with his thumb so that it closes the red circle (turn on the fuse), and, if necessary, reload the gun.

To reload the gun:

- remove the magazine from the base of the handle of the gun,

- insert the equipped magazine into the base of the handle,

- if firing is to take place, turn off the fuse (lower the flag down) and, if firing will be conducted with a preliminary cocking of the trigger, put the trigger on the combat cock. (If all cartridges were used up before reloading, you must take the bolt back and release it.)

To completely stop shooting command is given Discharge.

On this command, the shooter must:

- stop pressing the tail of the trigger,

To unload the gun:

- remove the magazine from the base of the handle,

- turn off the fuse (lower the flag down),

- remove the cartridge from the chamber, for which, holding the gun in the right hand by the handle, with the left hand take the bolt back and release it, lift the cartridge thrown out of the chamber from the chamber (the floor) and wipe it with rags,

- put the gun in the holster,

- remove the cartridges from the magazine: taking the magazine in your left hand, with the thumb of your right hand, move the cartridges one by one forward along the magazine feeder and grab them with the palm of the same hand,

- remove the gun from the holster, insert the magazine into the base of the handle, put the gun into the holster again and fasten the cover of the holster.

Fig. 59. How to remove cartridges from the store

On command “Weapon - for inspection” the shooter must:

- remove the magazine with the left hand from the base of the pistol grip and place it under the thumb of the right hand in front of the fuse so that the magazine feed is 2-3 cm higher than the shutter,

- after inspection of the weapon by the shooting leader, take the store in his left hand,

Fig. 60. The position of the pistol and the magazine in the hand on the command "Weapon for inspection"

- with the thumb of your right hand, press the shutter delay button and release the shutter,

- by pulling the trigger, trigger the trigger trigger,

- put the fuse in the "protection" position,

- insert the magazine into the base of the handle,

- Insert the gun into the holster and fasten the cover of the holster.

Shooting from behind and behind cover

94. Emphasis is used to enhance the validity of fire. Depending on the height of the emphasis, the shooter must take an appropriate position for firing.

95. When shooting from the stop, put the right hand with the gun on the stop so that its hand is on the weight and the pistol grip does not touch the stop.

96. Shelters are used to make it difficult for the enemy to observe and to defend against his fire.

97. When shooting with your hand from behind the shelter, you should take the appropriate position for shooting (standing, from the knee, lying down) and put your right hand to the stop so that the wrist with the gun is free (Fig. 61 and 62).

Fig. 61. Standing position for shelter

Fig. 62. Position for shooting from the knee from behind cover

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