10. Filling of LPG tankers
10.1. General directions
10.1.1. On the site, columns for filling tankers are prominently displayed:
- the technological scheme of the columns and their connection with the tanks of the storage base,
- plans for the localization and liquidation of accidents and a plan for the evacuation of personnel during an accident.
10.1.2. Production instructions are also issued to personnel.
10.1.3. Filling of tankers is carried out by personnel in the presence of the driver, who must install the tanker, secure it with portable wedges, wedges mounted under the wheels, and perform other necessary operations.
10.1.4. The personnel serving the columns for filling tankers should know the layout and purpose of the fittings, both on the filling column and on the tanker.
10.1.5. When filling the tanker, the driver follows all the instructions and instructions of the master and maintenance personnel.
10.2.Requirements for tankers for transporting LPG
10.2.1. Tankers for transporting liquefied gases prior to commissioning must be registered with the bodies of the Gosgortekhnadzor of Russia.
10.2.2. The design of the tank vessel should meet the requirements of PB 10-115, PB 12-609 and this subsection.
10.2.3. The tanker vessel must be painted in light color, have a distinctive strip of red and above the strip — black inscriptions “Propane-butane” and “Flammable”.
10.2.4. The following inscriptions should be stamped around the circumference of the flange for the manhole of the tank vessel:
- name of the manufacturer or its trademark,
- date (month, year) of manufacture and conduct of the next survey,
- the mass of the tank in the empty state without running gear, in t,
- the volume of the vessel in m 3,
- the value of the working and test pressures in MPa (kgf / cm 2),
- the mark of OTC of the manufacturer.
A metal plate must be attached to the channel frame of the tank truck with the passport data stamped on it:
- name of the manufacturer or its trademark,
- the mass of the tank with the running gear in the empty state in t,
- date of the next survey,
- tank registration number (stamped by the owner after registration with the Gosgortekhnadzor of Russia).
10.2.5. The following fittings should be installed on tank trucks for the transportation of LPG:
- valve for draining and filling (painted red),
- a valve for releasing the vapor phase of the LPG from the upper part of the tank vessel (painted in dark brown),
- control valve 85% filling,
- liquid level indicator.
10.3. Requirements for columns for filling tankers
10.3.1. The column should be equipped with:
- a protective device, excluding collision of vehicles,
- a set of wedge shoes for fixing the car,
- devices for grounding tank trucks,
- hoses with grounding conductors,
- manometers with three-way valves,
- high-speed and check valves,
- a candle for dropping residues of LPG from the connecting arms into the atmosphere.
10.3.2. The column is in a metal cabinet with shutters for ventilation, and is locked with a key. The key is in the master of the site.
10.4. LPG filling technology in tank trucks
10.4.1. Before filling the tanker, the operator inspects the outer surfaces of the fittings and plugs of the vessel, checks for residual pressure in the vessel and the compliance of the tanker with the requirements of PB 10-115 and this subsection. The results of the inspection, indicating the factory and registration numbers of the tank truck, as well as the conclusion on the possibility of filling it, are entered by the master in the maintenance journal. Tank filling should be performed by personnel of at least 2 people.
10.4.2. Having received the order of the master on filling the tank truck, maintenance personnel should:
- check the fixing of the car with wedge shoes,
- check the serviceability and reliability of the connecting sleeves,
- remove the plugs from the drain fittings of the tank,
- connect the connecting sleeves of the liquid phase of the filling column to the valve fitting for draining and filling the LPG,
- give a signal to the personnel of the tubing to turn on the pump (compressor),
- smoothly open the liquid phase valve on the column so as not to cause water hammer,
- by vibration of the sleeve make sure that the tank is filled with LPG,
- periodically open the control valve and when a jet of liquid phase SUG appears from it, close the column valve on the gas pipeline of the liquid phase,
- close the liquid phase valve on the tank truck,
- give a signal to the personnel of the pump-compressor compartment to turn off the pump (compressor),
- open the candle valve and release the remaining LPG from the connecting sleeve,
- disconnect the connecting sleeve from the tank valve nipple,
- plug the valve of the liquid phase of the tanker with a special plug and seal it (the plug is sealed by the master of the discharge section - LPG filling),
- check with a soap emulsion or in another way the closure density and tightness of the tanker valve,
- remove the grounding of the tank truck,
- set the tank truck on the scale, weigh and record in the log the mass of the released LPG.
10.4.3. The driver of the tanker must:
- when entering the territory of the LPG facility, observe the existing rules on it,
- before filling, put the tanker in a fixed position, keeping it throughout the filling time,
- follow the instructions of the personnel performing the filling,
- do not perform work not related to filling,
- when driving a tank truck, avoid sudden braking,
- turn on the ignition after obtaining permission from the personnel.
10.4.4. When filling a tank truck, personnel:
- monitors the level of the liquid phase in the tanker vessel. The degree of filling is not more than 85% of the volume of the vessel,
- monitors the pressure of the LPG by the pressure gauge of the column, the pressure of the LPG should not exceed 1.6 MPa,
- liaises with personnel of the compressor room and storage base.
10.4.5. When the tanker vessel overflows, the excess LPG is discharged into the underground tank to drain the unevaporated residues.
10.4.6. If the pressure on the column rises above 1.6 MPa, the operator stops filling, closes the valves on the column, notifies the foreman and the personnel of the tubing department.
10.4.7. If LHG leaks are detected on the tanker, the personnel stops filling, discharges the LHG from the tanker to an underground tank to drain unevaporated residues, or pumps it with a compressor in the form of vapors to the tanks of the storage base.
10.4.8. If LPG leaks are detected on the columns, the personnel stops filling the tankers, closes the valves on the columns and valves in the pump and compressor compartment.
10.4.9. If LPG leaks from the connecting hoses are detected or if they break, the personnel block the valves on the column and the loading valve on the tank truck.
10.4.10. The personnel informs the foreman about all cases of leaks of LPG, takes measures to eliminate damage and prohibits the presence of cars at the columns.
10.5. Maintenance of filling columns
10.5.1. The operating personnel must check the correctness of the pressure gauges on a monthly basis by means of a short shutdown using a three-way valve, and at least once a month, check the fittings and gas pipelines by soaping or in another way.
10.5.2. Maintenance of a tank truck for LPG is carried out at the LPG facility in accordance with the requirements of PB 10-115.
Tank trucks for LPG transportation: technical requirements
An automobile tank designed for transporting liquefied gases is a cylindrical steel tank. To protect the tank from exposure to sunlight, it can be equipped with a shadow casing made of stainless steel. The operating pressure at which the cargo is transported is 16 atmospheres. The operating temperature should be between -40 ° C and + 50 ° C.
Gas carrier based on Kamaz car
Tanks for gas carriers are manufactured according to GOST 21561-76, which provides the following requirements:
- Compliance with the Rules for the design and operation of pressure vessels.
- The ability to withstand the internal load created by propane at a wall temperature of + 50 ° C.
- The strength of the supporting structures, taking into account a dynamic coefficient of 2.5.
- Stability of a cylindrical form to the action of weight loads and vacuum.
- Cross and longitudinal stability against capsizing.
Modern requirements for the chassis on which tanks are installed require the presence of an ABS. In addition, each vehicle must have such technical capabilities as the GLONASS / GPS monitoring system.
Locking regulating mechanisms
To fill the tank of an autogas truck and discharge the LPG into the gas tank, a drainage unit is provided, consisting of several ball valves of a flange connection (see figure). The KSh4 crane is intended for work with a vapor phase, and the KSh1, KSh3, KSh7 cranes - for filling / discharge of a liquid phase. It is worth noting that gas discharge using these mechanisms is carried out only for refueling industrial tanks. For refueling gas tanks located in private households, a drum with a filling sleeve is used, the length of which reaches 50 m.
A drain unit is required to fill the tank and discharge the LPG
The fueling process is controlled using the operator panel, on which there are two toggle switches. One toggle switch is connected to the bottom valve, which is responsible for draining the liquid fraction, the second toggle switch controls the intake of the gas phase. In the process of filling or draining the LPG, both switches must be in the "Open" position. Read more about refueling gas tanks in the article: refueling a gas tank with gas - the main features.
The liquefied gas pump must comply with safety standards when working in explosive atmospheres. In particular, the Corken Z2000 pumping unit, which is often installed on domestic gas carriers, is manufactured in strict compliance with Russian and European rules and regulations. The complete unit is mounted on a common frame and consists of a vane pump with an driveshaft drive of the engine power take-off.
- Max. rotation speed: 750 rpm,
- Max. temperature: 107 ° C,
- Max. working pressure: 28.6 atm.,
- productivity: 270 l / min,
Pump unit Corken Z2000
Instruments for measurement and control
Not a single gas carrier can work without instrumentation. Such devices must undergo regular metrological checks, as they are responsible not only for the correct filling of the tank, but also for the safety of working with the propane-butane mixture. By the way, about the features of the operation of LPG can be found in the article: propane butane for a gas tank - properties and application features.
The following devices are installed on tankers for transporting liquefied gases:
- pressure gauge for measuring pressure after the pump,
- pressure gauge for measuring pressure in the tank,
- electronic level gauge showing the percentage filling of the tank,
- drain counter with vapor phase shutoff valve.
For safe operation, the gas carrier is equipped with instrumentation
Observing the performance of devices, the operator controls the filling / draining process, preventing dangerous situations. A critical indicator of pressure gauges is a value of 16 atmospheres, as evidenced by the red mark. It is also important to monitor the tank filling level, which should not exceed 85%.
The counter allows you to control the amount of gas discharged to both the driver and operator of the gas carrier, and the buyer. It is important that there are no additional taps after the counter. Its outlet should only be connected to the drain hose.
Counter for monitoring discharged gas
To protect equipment from emergency situations, safety elements are provided. One such mechanism is a differential bypass valve. It is designed to discharge excess gas back into the tank when the pressure on the pump supply line is exceeded and serves to protect and preserve the long life of the pump.
Bypass valve installed to relieve overpressure
An important point is the filtration of LPG, since it can contain various suspended particles, such as scale. In order to prevent damage to the pumping equipment and provide the end consumer with a clean product, a filter is installed at the pump inlet.
Such a filter is installed in a gas carrier for cleaning LPG
In case of breakdown of the electronic level gauge, a special crane is used to determine the filling level of the tank truck. The tube from the locking mechanism is located exactly at the level of 85% filling of the tank. If the vapor phase is released when the tap is opened, then the tank is still not full enough, if the liquid phase - the filling level has reached the limit or exceeded it.
Such an electronic level gauge is used in gas carriers
How to operate a gas carrier: basic safety rules
Before leaving, the driver of the gas and gas truck must check the technical condition and make sure all equipment is in good working order. Make sure that extinguishing media and static electricity removal devices are available (usually a bronze pin located next to the drain pipe).
On the left in the photo is a bronze pin, which serves as a static electricity discharge device.
It is forbidden to place a tanker filled with gas close to places with open fire and in crowded places. All manipulations with gas valves must be done carefully, avoiding actions that could lead to the formation of a spark. Do not use tools that promote sparking.
Periodic leak check
An important aspect of safe operation of a gas carrier is the tightness of all connections. To avoid emergency situations, it is necessary to periodically check for gas leaks. For this, each compound is wrapped with film material, after which nitrogen is pumped into the system. A small hole is made in the film, which is lubricated with a soapy solution. In this way, a leak can be detected and resolved promptly.
Using a film lubricated with soapy water, gas leakage is checked.
Gas delivery is best trusted by a trusted supplier. The company "Promtehgaz" has at its disposal new tankers with a volume of 12 m³ based on KamAZ vehicles that are equipped with a GLONASS / GPS monitoring system. Thanks to the new fleet, the buyer receives gas products as soon as possible.
By the way, more detailed information on autonomous gasification can be found here.
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