Today, scientists have counted in nature only three varieties of these birds:
- Black-necked Zaryanka, Ryukyu Nightingale (Erithacus komadori),
- Zaryanka (Erithacus rubecula),
- Japanese zaryanyka (Erithacus akahige).
It is worth noting that only the last two species are described in detail, as for the black-necked zaryanka, there is very little information about it.
The appearance of zaryanok
These songbirds are very modest in size. The length of their body is from 15 to 16 centimeters. Mass of adult zaryanyka: 16-18 grams. These birds have a small and thin beak, tiny, but very tenacious, paws. The plumage of the zaryanoks is loose and rather soft, the feathers are not tight to the body. Such a structure of feather cover “fills” the bird, but in fact it is smaller than it seems because of its fur coat.
The color of the plumage depends on the type: in an ordinary egg-frog, the wings, tail and back are olive-gray, the chest and abdominal region are light gray, but the chest, throat and frontal part have a bright orange hue, as for the Japanese egg-frog, the upper body she has a reddish part, the lower part of the trunk is bluish-gray. It is possible to distinguish females from males of zaryanka only by a brighter spot on the chest (which is inherent in males).
Above, the robin is painted in gray-green color, it has a white abdomen, and the throat, chest, forehead and sides of the head are red in different shades. Males have a brighter color than females. Also, the brightness of the shade depends on the puberty of the bird. With age, the shade of females and males becomes almost identical. The size of the birds is 13 - 16 cm, the length of the wings is about 7 cm, the weight of the bird is 15 - 23 grams, the northern robins are larger than the southern ones.
Robin bird tweets on a branch. Young robin. Robin on the ground. Robin. Robin on the road.
Habitat and behavior
Robin's favorite habitat is humid mixed and deciduous forests with dense undergrowth and a pond, with small clearings. Zaryanka can settle in parks, the main condition is a large number of shrubs, it is here that they breed their offspring. You cannot meet these birds in America or Australia, in the 20th century they were even specially brought there, but the birds did not take root.
Zaryanki from different regions lead a different way of life: the southern inhabitants are sedentary, and the northern birds are migratory and return very first in spring.
In the daytime, zaryanki are very active, in the evening their activity decreases. Robins are not at all afraid of people, and often flies to summer residents to find earthworms in the soil.
In warmer areas of its range, robin leads a sedentary life, nests in cold summers, and migrates west and south in the fall. From Siberia, Eastern Europe and Scandinavia, birds fly to Western Europe, Algeria and the Azores. They return to nesting sites in March and are considered early spring birds.
Robin. Robin on a branch. Robin on a branch. Robin in the forest. Robin. The singing robin. Robin fluffed up in the cold. Robin in the snow. Zaryanka or robin, frost on the street -25C.
The basis of the diet of robins are worms, small mollusks, spiders and caterpillars, which they can get on the ground. They can also eat berries (elderberry, mountain ash, blackberry, currant), fruits, seeds and cereals. In the fall, they begin to look for food in the feeders that people prepare for them.
Robin is figuring out a relationship with a tit. Robin with prey. Robin with elderberry.
Robin males returning in the first spring looking for a suitable nesting place, they will be the region where they were born. Robins arrange their nests on the ground in shrubs, on stumps, in tree cracks. For construction, dry leaves, grass stems are used, the bottom is lined with moss. The nest is small, but very neat - about 5 cm in height and 7 cm in width.
During the season, the female makes up to three clutches, usually 5-6 eggs in one clutch, which only the female incubates for 12-15 days. The color of the eggs resembles the color of dry grass - pinkish or yellow with red spots.
Chicks are born completely naked with black skin. Newborn chicks are very voracious - they can eat up to four meters of worms per day. They get on the wing on the 15-17th day and live for ten more days near their parents, after which they fly out of the nest. The chicks leave the nest when they are not yet able to fly well, therefore their color resembles dry leaves and dark grass in which they will live.
Young robin. Zaryanka zaryanka (robin). Young robin.
Young flying chicks do not fly far from their parents, who can warn their children about the danger. Unfortunately, robin chicks have a high mortality rate in the first year of life, however, if the chick survives, it can live up to 11-12 years.
Where do the zaryanka live?
The ordinary robin (zaryanka) lives in Europe, in addition, lives in the Caucasus, Western Siberia, Asia Minor, and Northwest Africa. The Japanese species of zaryanok lives in China and Japan. Southern populations lead a sedentary lifestyle, northern populations make seasonal migrations to warmer climes.
The robin bird is distinguished by its individual approach to life, if you can say so about birds, this is expressed in everything: zaryanki live alone, they even fly alone for the winter. These little birds are fiercely guarding their territory from other people's encroachments. Males determine their territory, including by issuing voice “notifications” that “a place is taken”.
In large cities in the north, zaryanki can winter near human habitation.
The birds got the name zaryanka for their loud singing in the morning: their trills are heard especially strongly at sunrise and sunset, but in general robins sing all day.
Within the range, zaryanok can be found in all natural forest areas. Nests of birds are arranged on the ground, between the roots of trees. The development of agriculture over the past decades has caused a dramatic change in the landscape - many forests have disappeared. Therefore, zaryanki often nest at the forest edges and in the thicket, They adapted to life in the gardens. Due to the change in the place of stay, the birds are so emboldened that they no longer avoid human settlements and willingly arrange their nests in them.
Zaryanka, as well as other songbirds, designate their territory with loud singing. They sing louder in the spring, at which time singing acquires another meaning - attracting a female.
The song of Zaryanka during the mating season begins with sounds resembling the creak of an unlubricated cartwheel that rises and ends with a melodic chime of silver bells.
The male looks after the female beautifully, bringing her all sorts of goodies, which they then eat together. Inspired by spring heat, the female is nesting. In the forest, she arranges it from the leaves, grass and roots of plants, lining with soft wool.
Buckwheat nests are built in gardens near homes, on eaves of verandas or in sheds. Sometimes they use open bird houses if they hang in secluded places.
Chicks hatch from May to June. However, it happens that the nests of zaryanki are arranged in the month of February. After laying eggs, the female does not leave her nest for 14 days. At this time, only its brown back can be seen there. The male takes care of food all this time. He brings the female food sometimes even thrice in one hour. Both parents take care of the offspring during the first 2–3 weeks. After the end of this period, the chicks already begin to fly themselves and begin an independent life. Even before the onset of winter, they find their own territories. If the birds managed to lay their eggs earlier, then after the breakup of the married couple, the eggplants begin the second clutch.
It often happens that the male still continues to take care of the chicks from the first brood, and the female is already sitting on the eggs for the second time.
By their singing, birds mark the territory and attract partners. In the spring, when the zaryanca males look for the female, they sing louder. Morning singing is primarily associated with the designation of the territory.
Zaryanki sing almost all year round. In the late summer, during plumage, they sing much quieter than usual. Starting from this period and throughout the fall, both adults and young individuals perform a quieter, more melancholy "autumn song", the main purpose of which is to designate winter territory. Males begin to sing their spring song in February. This song ends with a melodic chime of silver bells. The robin sings especially well immediately after sunrise and sunset - hence the second name of this bird - a cactus.
OBSERVATIONS OF MASTER
Zaryanka can be most easily seen while digging the ground in the garden. After a few minutes of work on the fence or on a branch of a neighboring tree, a zaryanka will appear, which will patiently wait for the moment when it will be possible to look for something to eat in the freshly excavated earth. Zaryanka is a frequent visitor to the gardens, here they sit on bare ground as willingly as they do on rose bushes or other plants. These birds can be lured to a feeder, in which they will find a variety of food, including oatmeal suitable for them. If you have enough patience, then you can tame a zaryanka - then it will take food directly from your hand. It’s important not to frighten her away, but you can’t encourage the bird to be too trusting, especially if there is a cat nearby. Zaryanka sometimes nests in thrown out dishes, for example, in an old bucket, which lies under a hedge, and in a birdhouse.
INTERESTING FACTS, INFORMATION.
- In England, robots are called postmen for their red uniforms. Robins were also associated with holiday cards.
- In Great Britain and Central Europe, zaryanki live near human settlements. In other countries of Europe they are shot for sporting purposes or for consumption.
- A third of all young breadwinners die before the end of the first year of life. They are caught up by predators or they die of hunger, because they are not able to take care of themselves. A tenth of adult zaryanok dies, protecting its territory from enemies.
- Thrush is the American equivalent of a zaryanka.
CHILD BIRD DESCRIPTION
Plumage of Zaryanok: The chest of nestling chicks seems to be motley, because their plain-looking contour plumage at the edges is black in color. During the first two months, the post-nest molt occurs in the zaryanok, and then their baby plumage is replaced by the plumage of adult birds.
Eggs: Eggs are light pink with rusty brown specks.
- Habitat habitat
All of Europe, with the exception of parts of the Mediterranean coast and northern Scandinavia. Lives also in the central regions of Western Siberia, the Caucasus, Asia Minor and North-West Africa.
PROTECTION AND PRESERVATION
The size of its population is quite stable. Deforestation did not lead to a decrease in the number of zaryanok - they adapted to other living conditions.
Enemies zaryanok in nature
At these birds, larger feathered predators are not averse to hunting: falcons, owls, in addition, attack zaryanoks, as well as predators such as forest cats, ferrets, foxes, ermines, martens, and weasels ruin their nests.
Life in captivity is not a burden for zaryanoks: if proper care is provided for them, then they quickly adapt, get used to the owner and daily delight him with their sonorous trills.
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