Follow these simple steps to learn how to measure the right amount of catalyst, mix it safely with methyl alcohol, and add the mixture to the oil to get your biodiesel.
- 1 Ensure safety first. You work with certain chemicals and vapors that can be dangerous if handled improperly. It is very important to wear the correct protective equipment and work in a well-ventilated area. Be sure to wear rubber gloves and a face shield all the time. Small particles of potassium hydroxide dust when inhaled can cause irritation and damage. A protective visor and a respirator will protect your face from dust particles and spills of any chemicals.
- 2 Weigh the catalyst. For every liter of oil that you turn into biodiesel, you need seven grams of potassium hydroxide. In addition, you need to add “extra” grams of potassium hydroxide equal to the titer. For easy and easy decomposition of oil, if its titer is 2, you need 7 plus 2, or 9 grams of potassium hydroxide for every liter of oil. Place the plastic container on the scale and fill it with the correct amount of potassium hydroxide.
- 3 Make methoxide. When you weigh the amount of potassium hydroxide you need to make a biodiesel mixture, take a funnel and insert it into a container with methyl alcohol. Make sure that the amount of methyl alcohol you use is 20–22% of the initial oil load. Pour in potassium hydroxide and let it settle.
- Attach the valve cap to the methyl alcohol container.
- As potassium hydroxide dissolves in methyl alcohol, the mixture will heat up and boil. Bubbles will appear at the bottom of the plastic container. Keep the plastic container away from you and open the valve to relieve vapor pressure. These vapors can be very dangerous if inhaled, so when venting vapors, keep the top of the container at arm's length from the protective visor.
- Release fumes approximately every 20 seconds until potassium hydroxide is completely dissolved. You can determine this by looking at the bottom of the container.
- When completely dissolved, you can add this “methoxide” to the oil in your reactor.
- Drain the by-product glycerin from the mixture. After draining the glycerin, your oil will change color from dark (glycerin) to light (raw biodiesel).
On the advantages and disadvantages of biodiesel
Home a lot of the good qualities of this type of fuel refers to the reduction of emissions into the environment. If you look at the issue globally, then the amount of carbon dioxide formed during the combustion of fuel, in theory, is equal to the amount that oilseeds consumed from the air. We can assume that a balance is maintained, but only during combustion biodiesel in boilers, their efficiency is quite high. But the efficiency of internal combustion engines is only 60%, in addition to carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide will also appear, polluting the atmosphere.
The fuel contains too little sulfur, so the use of biodiesel causes much less damage to the environment. When water enters the water, the fuel does not pollute it, but is slowly decomposed by microbes. Well, the engine in vegetable diesel fuel works better, because its cetane amount (51) is greater than oil fuel (42-45). Among the shortcomings, it must be emphasized:
- a higher price when compared with the classic fuel,
- the impossibility of prolonged storage, after 3 months the process of its decomposition begins,
- large sown areas for growing raw materials.
Do-it-yourself innovative waste products biodiesel in the form of a glycerin phase, which is not possible to process into home conditions. And the fuel itself, mined at home, does not compare in quality with the factory one and can create many problems as a result of the operation of ICE. Thanks to this, the craftsmen involved in this business can suggest how to carefully filter the oil before loading into the tank, this also applies to the final product.
How did you find out the manufacturing biodiesel not such an easy thing, as it might seem at first glance. Especially if you look at the tips taken from the Internet. This absolutely does not mean that home production fuel is not possible, it just requires substantial investment and effort.
Types of Biofuels
Biofuel is supplied in all forms, and its use depends on its consistency and ability to burn and produce energy. The most common types of biofuel:
- ethanol - This is the most common type of biofuel, which is obtained by natural fermentation using enzymes in sugar and starches. Ethanol can be used to replace traditional fuels, but the disadvantage is that it has a lower specific energy and, therefore, it will need a larger volume to produce the same amount of energy as for diesel and gasoline. It can be mixed with other types of oil to produce a more environmentally friendly fuel.
- methanol - It comes mainly from natural gas through anaerobic metabolism. This type of biofuel is highly toxic and is not suitable for consumption today. Additional studies are underway to reduce its toxicity.
- biogas - Biogas produced by anaerobic digestion of organic substances such as feces, agricultural and food waste is a source of renewable energy and has a very low carbon footprint compared to other types of biofuel. It can come in solid state and gas with various applications.
- Bioeteres - At a relatively low energy density, bio-esters cannot be used as fuel on their own, but they are widely used as oil enhancers since they have less environmental impact than lead-based amplifiers.
- Vegetable oil - Vegetable oil, usually used for frying, at some stages of its life cycle can directly replace diesel fuel as fuel for engines. Currently, more and more people are processing used vegetable oil to produce less viscous fuel than they put and drive their cars.
- biodiesel - It is made from a wide range of organic materials such as vegetable oil, seeds and even algae. Biodiesel has much lower emissions than mineral fuels and is the most common biofuel in Europe.
- butanol - This is alcohol that is produced naturally and has a high increase in energy, if properly processed.
Use and benefits of biofuels.
Recent improvements in the composition and production of biofuels have allowed him to become part of regular consumption, and without any knowledge biofuels, such as ethanol, are added to the chemical mixture produced for gasoline and diesel fuel. Biofuels help reduce pollutants generated by burning fossil fuels.
Some of the modern uses of biofuels include:
transport - The recent development of biofuel technology has provided the community with a renewable source of transport fuel. Biodiesel, ethanol and vegetable oil are currently used in several countries to replace traditional fuels. Current trends have allowed biofuels to be mixed with mineral-based fuels to produce a more efficient compound that has lower emissions and helps protect the engine.
power - As with internal combustion engines, power plants also need petroleum-based fuels, but biofuels are gradually reducing our dependence on mineral-based products. For example, biogas is used by farmers and other agricultural enterprises to support their production facilities, enabling them to dispose of waste without adding to the waste management problems that the world is facing.
heat - Heating is an essential requirement for any home located north of the equator. As in the case of engines, traditional heaters require fuel to operate and heat the house, and biofuels have almost captured this particular field because of its lower cost. Biologically processed gas, such as butanol and propanol, is often used in heating systems. Some biofuels are also used for cooking.
Discussing the benefits are some of the most popular:
stable - The current impetus for the search and use of renewable energy sources has been focused on biofuels, because, unlike fossil fuels, its production does not take much time and, subject to the availability of its raw materials, it can always be produced. again. ,
The variety of possible sources of raw materials makes biofuels renewable and sustainable, and plant materials can be planted again and again, depending on the need, plants can be changed to others if demand is low and Plant-based materials not only provide biofuel materials, but also help clean the air as well. through photosynthesis.
economic - Mineral fuel requires transportation from the extraction site to the processing plant and from the processing plant to service stations. This does not include the costs of researching and refining crude oil. Biofuels can be processed in the same area in which they are obtained in order to reduce transportation and operating costs. Biogas can be used on the same farm, and biodiesel plants can be built next to raw plantations.
Biofuels are also cleaner than traditional fuels, which means they can better maintain their engine while lowering the maintenance costs of their vehicles. Its adaptability to any type of engine also increases the profitability of biofuels.
Reduced dependence on fossil fuels. As you know, fossil fuels are extracted from the fossilized remains of plants and animals, and although it is claimed that the planet has a large supply of fossil fuels that has not yet been recovered, it will not dry endlessly and faster if it does, it does not decrease dramatically. Adding biologically processed fuels to the mixture gives consumers the opportunity to choose and reduces society’s dependence on oil.
Environmentally friendly - It is widely recognized that biofuels are cleaner than mineral-based fuels, but in reality they process the same chemical, hydrocarbon, and therefore produce almost the same amount of carbon emissions.
The advantage of biofuels is how it is produced and transported. Sustainable sources mean that the same piece of land can be used again and again to produce the same amount of raw materials, while the area used for fossil fuels can no longer be used for anything else. The topsoil is preserved in the production of biofuels, which means that it can be used for agriculture as needed.
Since biofuels can be obtained and processed in the same common area, transportation is no longer required, which reduces the carbon emissions generated during transportation. It also reduces the likelihood of accidental fuel spills in the surrounding areas. Biofuel spills are also easier to clean up and have a significantly smaller impact on the ecosystem.
Biofuel production also takes advantage of plants that are not commonly used for human consumption, which stimulates research efforts to find other plant-based materials that can be used for biofuel production. An ingenious side effect is that other uses (medicinal or other) are opening up, expanding modern knowledge about the ecology of the Earth.
Cooking Your Own Fuel
The great advantage of biofuels is that, in fact, you can do it in the comfort of your own home, well, maybe outside your home, if possible, a few hundred feet. The materials and equipment you need are readily available at your local stores, otherwise you can always find and order them online. The easiest biodiesel to produce and configure with minimal equipment is biodiesel.
As discussed above, biodiesel is created using organic material mixed with a catalyst and enzymes. Homemade biodiesel is a vegetable oil product that reacts with methanol and another catalytic compound, but it is not as simple as it seems. He will need the right tools to use biodiesel.
The first and most important thing you need to create a biodiesel is a biodiesel reactor, which you can order online or, if you want to be self-sufficient, you can build it. For a biodiesel reactor, you can use an old tank for heating water, a pump and several plumbing valves, pipes and couplings. To secure the reactor, you will also need several adjustable belts and several power cables to power everything.
Assemble the reactor by connecting the tubing to the heater and make sure that all joints and couplings are securely fastened. You can then test the system to detect leaks and other problem areas. This step is necessary because it avoids any delays when you are already processing the actual biodiesel production process.
For smaller batches of biodiesel, you can use mineral water bottles or an empty 4-liter juice, a small stove, an old blender and a few old pots instead of creating or buying a biodiesel reactor.
Some other equipment that you will need is scales and other measuring instruments. Creating your own biodiesel requires exact science, and the ingredients must be carefully measured and weighed.
For your own safety, be sure to have several pairs of rubber gloves and safety glasses on hand. He will handle chemicals that can cause an adverse reaction if not handled with care.
The materials you will need to produce your own biodiesel are vegetable oil as its main ingredient, methanol as a reaction compound, and sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide as a catalyst. Vegetable oil may be a direct market product, but save some money and use waste vegetable oil. You can contact local restaurants and get used oil for free or at a reasonable price.
Methanol is an industrial alcohol-based solvent and is sometimes used as an antifreeze, so great care is required when handling this chemical. Caustic soda can be purchased at supermarkets, and the one you must buy must have a purity of at least 99%. Always check the label to make sure you are getting the right chemical. If caustic soda is not available, 100% bleach can be used.
However, with a warning, suppliers may ask for proof of identity and a statement of purpose. Why? The chemicals mentioned are also used for the production of illegal substances and, especially if you buy in bulk, they will definitely arouse suspicion from the authorities.
Before reprocessing your own biodiesel, take the following precautions to prevent injuries or accidents. Remember that the chemicals you work with are flammable and toxic.
- Wear the right clothes.When working with hazardous chemicals, it is recommended to wear long-sleeved clothing, denim or trousers made of thick material, chemical gloves, aprons and eye protection.
- In standby mode, supply running water so that you can easily eliminate any chemical spills.
- Make sure there are no children or pets nearby to accidentally process your preparations.
- Prepare a gas mask in case harmful mixtures form as a result of mixing.
The procedures described below are for small batches of biodiesel that you can cook in the kitchen or garage.
- Prepare your work area by removing any clutter and making sure the area is well ventilated to avoid choking.
- Measure about 5 g of bleach and mix with 220 ml of methanol. Place the mixture in a glass or jug and stir until the alkali or caustic soda dissolves. You can use a blender at this point, but make sure that you are not using the blender again for any other purpose.
- The resulting solution is methoxide oxide, which is a potent compound. Put it aside.
- Measure out approximately 1 liter of vegetable oil and pour it into the pan. If you are using used vegetable oil, be sure to filter it first before pouring it into the pan.
- Preheat the oil to 130 degrees. This can cause the wastewater to boil and turn into steam, leaving you 100% oil. The used vegetable oil will take longer than the “fresh” vegetable oil, since it has passed the first original frying, and the liquid from which it was prepared will be mixed with the used oil.
- After heating, pour the oil into a 4 liter bottle of juice and mix the methanol oxide solution.
- Close the bottle thoroughly and shake vigorously (approximately 5 minutes) to ensure consistency. Set aside.
- The liquid will settle in a few hours. The result will be biodiesel at the top and glycerin at the bottom. Leave the mixture for about 24 hours.
- There will be a significant change in color, and the separation between glycerin and biodiesel will be visible at this point.
- Pour the biodiesel into another 4-liter bottle and make sure that none of the glycerol is poured into a new container.
- After transferring the biodiesel, wash and dry the mixture. This is done by adding warm distilled water to the biodiesel and slowly mixing the two together.
- The solution will be soapy, and you need to filter the soapy part by turning the bottle and pouring the soapy part. You must repeat the process two or three times until all the soapy liquid has been poured out.
- After washing the solution, you can let the biodiesel dry. You must make sure that the bottle is open and in a cool, dry place. It will take several days before it is completely dry and ready for use.
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When using a biodiesel reactor, the procedure changes slightly, as the reactor will do most of the work for you. You only need to filter out the used vegetable oil before pouring it into the collection tank, which will then feed the oil into the biodiesel processor.
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Prepare it and gas it!
The call for renewable energy has never been so great, and recycling used vegetable oil helps answer that call. This not only helps to get rid of unnecessary materials, but also creates a sustainable source of energy for daily consumption.