By the level of CPK is meant the content in the blood of a special enzyme creatine phosphokinase, which is also called creatine kinase. This substance is mainly found in the tissues of skeletal muscles, heart and brain. Creatine kinase acts as a catalyst in biochemical reactions, it is necessary for energy metabolism in tissues, to maintain their tone and to carry out muscle contractions. The current state of muscle systems is determined by the amount of this enzyme in the blood.
When muscles are damaged, CPK from muscle cells enters the bloodstream, respectively, its level increases.
According to the results of this study, the doctor can also find out the nature and extent of tissue damage.
When is a CPK blood test prescribed?
Most often, the doctor directs for an analysis to accurately determine such a dangerous diagnosis as myocardial infarction, as well as for the diagnosis of a heart attack. Thanks to this testing, such diagnoses are detected with an accuracy of 100%. According to the results of the analysis, one can judge the causes of pain in the chest, the state of the heart muscle and skeletal muscles. The study is also conducted to identify possible diseases at an early stage or to test the effectiveness of treatment of an existing diagnosis.
Preparation before examination
In general, this procedure requires the same preparation as most blood tests. The fence is made early in the morning. Before going to the hospital you can’t have breakfast, go on an empty stomach, and 2 hours before visiting you can’t smoke.
Important! Before taking an analysis for CPK, you should not drink alcohol, take a number of drugs, in particular lowering cholesterol.
If you can’t refuse to take the medicine, be sure to notify the doctor. Tell him the name of the drug to be taken and its dosage. If the analysis is carried out in order to diagnose skeletal muscles, then it is not recommended to engage in physical activity before this. All these actions can lead to an increase in the content of creatine phosphokinase in the blood, and the results will be unreliable.
Blood is taken from a vein at the elbow, just like for other similar tests. After that, the collected material is sent to the research laboratory for study. For the study, it is necessary to separate the serum from the cells. The analysis procedure is carried out using a special device KFK-photocolorimeter. The apparatus is based on the photometry method: there is a selective absorption of electromagnetic radiation in the visible (infrared and ultraviolet) spectrum.
The level of CPK is measured in units / liter. (unit of enzyme per liter of serum)
Indicators KFK norms in people of different ages vary. The activity of the enzyme is naturally higher in children, as they actively grow and develop, move more, all biochemical processes in them pass much faster. Also, in men, the CPK level is higher than in women. The indicator depends on the level of physical activity: the more people engage in sports, the more active the enzyme.
Attention! There are certain standards for the content of CPK in the blood for each group of people: the total norm is 24-195 U / l, for men over 17 years old, 190 U / l is considered optimal, for women over 17 - 167 U / l.
Important! What affects the increase in CPK?
- heart disease, myocardial infarction and heart attacks,
- myodystrophy of any type,
- the presence of diseases such as heart failure, tachycardia, tetanus,
- disorders in the central nervous system: schizophrenia, psychosis and various disorders,
- excessive physical activity and muscle injuries associated with them,
- various surgical interventions, as well as the postoperative period,
- inflammatory processes in the body,
- cancerous tumors
- abuse of alcohol and sleeping pills.
A decrease in enzyme activity indicates insufficient physical activity, a sedentary lifestyle. The percentage of muscle mass in the body decreases, which leads to insufficient production of creatine kinase. However, a low level of the enzyme does not lead to serious disturbances in the functioning of organs, therefore, the upper limit of the norm is most often indicated in the tables.
The amount of CPK is affected by the activity of the thyroid hormone secreted by the thyroid gland. With a lack of thyroxine, the level of creatine kinase can exceed the norm by a factor of tens, and vice versa, if excessive release of thyroxin occurs, it will inhibit the activity of CPK and reduce its level.
Is it possible to stabilize CPK levels naturally?
With a high content of the enzyme in the blood, you must definitely go to the hospital with the help of doctors, since only they can find out the cause of any deviations and prescribe the correct treatment.
However, there are still a few rules that will help stabilize the level of CPK:
- try to eat heart-strengthening foods
- consume enough magnesium to avoid muscle cramps,
- include in your diet foods that contain enough vitamins A and C,
- try some types of special diets after consulting with your doctor in advance,
- reduce the consumption of fatty, spicy and salty foods, as this adversely affects the work of the heart,
- avoid stressful situations, try to be less nervous and overwork
- engage in mild physical activity only on the recommendation of a doctor,
If KFK indicators are below normal, then just try to lead a more active lifestyle, move more, start jogging.
Conclusion: the analysis of blood CPK helps doctors diagnose very dangerous diseases at an early stage, as well as monitor the course of the disease and the effectiveness of its treatment.
A study on the activity of this substance is extremely important: it is a signal of significant violations in the body. If you suspect a malfunction in the cardiac or muscle system, immediately seek help from specialists and conduct an analysis on the level of CPK.
What is creatine kinase in the blood, and why does it rise?
For many years, unsuccessfully fighting hypertension?
Head of the Institute: “You will be amazed how easy it is to cure hypertension by taking it every day.
An increase in creatine kinase occurs with the development in the body of an acute form of myocardial infarction, which is important in the diagnosis of this disease. That is why, when doctors deliver a patient to a medical institution with a suspicion of this disease, they must take tests that include the activity of creatine kinase (this is a medical indicator that allows you to evaluate the work of the heart muscle). Important: most often doctors, speaking about this indicator, use such an abbreviation as CPK or creatine phosphokinase - today all patients suffering from heart diseases can hear it.
What is CPK and isoenzymes
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As mentioned above, the determination of blood CPK activity by blood tests is extremely important for diagnosis, because almost all patients with the development of myocardial infarction experience a sharp increase in creatine kinase activity, which can be easily seen from the results of the analyzes.
Creatine kinase is an important enzyme for health that can take part in the energy metabolism that occurs in the tissues of the body. In addition, this component is considered a catalyst capable of performing certain biochemical transformations, without which the normal functioning of the body is impossible. For example, this catalyst accelerates the phosphorylation of creatine, which is able to create energy impulses necessary for normal muscle contraction.
The largest amount of the enzyme is located in the heart, brain tissues, skeleton muscles, as well as in the smooth muscle parts of the uterine cavity. In this case, the activity of the component is suppressed due to thyroxine, which is produced in the human body with the help of the thyroid gland.
The basis of the molecule of this enzyme is 2 dimers that are part of creatine kinase - B and M, which form certain isoenzymes. Despite the fact that each of the formed isoenzymes is located in certain tissues, some of them give their greatest preference.
That is why isoenzymes have a different name, since they have significant differences and belong to a specific internal organ:
- MM is a muscle isoenzyme that is most often localized in the muscles of the skeleton. Important: this isoenzyme in the plasma part of the blood accounts for about 98% of the activity of creatine kinase that appears in the body.
- BB is a cerebral isoenzyme that is located, as the name implies, in the brain, or rather, its nerve tissues. That is why it is not found in blood serum, because it can not overcome the blood-brain barrier. It is possible to detect this isoenzyme in the blood only with a stroke or the development of a brain injury.
- MV is a hybrid isoenzyme, most of which is located in the heart. It is important to note that in the blood serum its amount reaches only 2%.
Creatine kinase norms in adults, adolescents and children
In children and adolescents, the activity of creatine kinase is increased, which is explained by their intensive growth and development, since all processes that occur in the child's body are accelerated.
Also, the activity and increase in the enzyme are affected by:
- human gender - in men, the level of creatine kinase is high, compared with women,
- physique - an increasing factor of enzyme activity is directly related to the number of muscles pumped up - the more they are, the higher the activity,
- physical activity - if the human body is in excellent athletic form - CPK indicators can increase.
In order to know the rate of creatine kinase, you can use the following data, in which indicators are given in units / liter at a temperature of 37 ° C:
- newborns up to 5 days - up to 652,
- children up to six months - no more than 295,
- starting from 6 months to a year - about 203,
- up to 3 years - no more than 228,
- from 3 to 6 years, the indicators vary up to 149,
- boys under 12 have a rate of 247, and girls - no more than 154,
- young men whose age has not reached 18 years old - 270, girls - 123,
- men from 18 and older - up to 195, women - up to 167.
Since a decrease in the activity of this enzyme is not valuable for diagnostics, this is why the norms of this component have one upper limit, which must be followed when deciphering the results.
Why is it necessary to determine creatine kinase in diagnosis
It is worth knowing that creatine kinase enters the blood in large quantities when damage occurs to the cells in which it is contained. Most often, this situation is observed as a result of damage to cardiomyocytes or cells located in skeletal muscle. That is why creatine kinase activity is important for the quick and accurate diagnosis of myocardial infarction.
Also, this laboratory study helps to control the course of the disease and its treatment. Creatine kinase levels are increased already in the first hours of myocardial infarction, which is why it is considered an early sign of this disease. It is impossible to hide the forms of myocardial infarction, as well as its relapses from this laboratory study, especially when an ECG shows nothing.
In addition to CPK, there is an equally important test that can show an early reaction of the body to damage or inhibition of myocardial cells. Myoglobin belongs to this test, the increased indices of which can be determined somewhat earlier than the increase in creatine kinase.
Since CPK activity can be observed in any tissues of the body, the role of this procedure in determining the development of a heart attack in a patient in the body is not particularly important, as the determination of the activity of its isoenzyme, which includes creatine kinase MV.
What is the MV fraction for determining creatine kinase activity? The MV fraction is of great importance in diagnostic studies. After all, as mentioned above, its activity allows us to talk about the development of a heart attack in a patient.
Normal values of this enzyme should not exceed 10 U / l. Most often, this analysis is carried out in special centers where there is a cardiology department, since in other medical institutions - hospitals and clinics, it makes no sense to keep devices for KK-MV.
If such a fraction of creatine kinase in the blood is increased, the causes of this phenomenon are as follows:
- Myocardial infarction - an increase in the level occurs 6 hours after the onset of the attack, the maximum values are reached after 25-30 hours, and normal values become 3 days later.
- Duchenne cardiomyodystrophy is a neuromuscular disease transmitted by inheritance, which manifests itself as a constant violation of the striated muscles.
- Monitoring KK-MV indices is invaluable not only as a diagnostic tool, but also for monitoring the patient’s health status.
What diseases increase the amount of CPK?
In addition to myocardial infarction, an increase in creatine kinase is manifested in the following cases:
- muscle dystrophy,
- Ischemic heart disease,
- rheumatic heart disease
- brain injury
- muscle injury
- cerebrovascular disease
- circulatory disorders, bedsores,
- heart rhythm disturbance,
- increased muscle loads
- damage to the heart as a result of shock, hyperthermia,
- alcohol poisoning
- intramuscular injections of drugs - narcotic, psychotropic, sedatives, as well as some groups of antibiotics,
- radioactive radiation leading to the development of acute radiation sickness,
- mental illness
- malignant neoplasms in organs.
How to quickly reduce pressure without pills?
Arterial hypertension is a serious disease that requires complex treatment. At high pressure, only pharmacological preparations are not enough. You need to get rid of bad habits, throw off extra pounds, switch to proper nutrition and increase your physical activity. Only such an approach to this disease will give the maximum effect and improve the quality and life expectancy.
How to relieve pressure at home: emergency care
Most often, an excessive increase in pressure develops as a hypertensive crisis. It is very important to stop this emergency condition, as it can lead to:
- aortic dissection
- myocardial infarction
- cerebral stroke
- eclampsia in pregnant women.
This is a very serious syndrome, and first of all you need to call an ambulance. Before the arrival of medical care, the captopril or nifedipine tablets will quickly reduce the pressure. It is necessary to take 1-2 tablets of one or another drug inside or under the tongue.
Captopril for pressure
If there are no pharmacological preparations on hand, you can also lower the pressure without tablets using these methods:
- Exhale slowly for 10 minutes and hold your breath for 10 seconds at a depth of exhalation. Thus, the activity of the vagus nerve increases, and it, in turn, reduces heart rate (heart rate) and blood pressure.
- Dip your feet in a bowl of hot water for 5 minutes. This will expand the vessels of the lower extremities, which will lead to the outflow of blood from the head and prevent the development of a stroke.
- Do self-massage of the head, neck, collar area. Massage the temporal and occipital region, rub the neck and chest area in a circular motion. These procedures must be done for at least 15 minutes.
The use of herbs
Herbal medicines are not part of the main therapy for arterial hypertension. However, this does not mean that they are useless in the treatment of hypertension. On the contrary, some herbal preparations have a vasodilating, sedative, diuretic effect, which favorably affects the cardiovascular system.
It looks like fennel
Medicinal herbs that are used in the treatment of hypertension include:
- linden flowers
- peppermint leaves
- valerian root
- St. John's wort grass
- hawthorn flowers
- hibiscus leaves.
To prepare a therapeutic agent, it is necessary to brew it in the same way as ordinary tea. A single dose - one cup of infusion in the morning on an empty stomach.
What foods can help relieve pressure?
In many respects, pressure indicators depend on the diet. Properly selected products by themselves do not allow pressure to rise and increase the effectiveness of antihypertensive drugs. This is due to the fact that they include:
- macro- and microelements (potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, sodium, calcium),
- alimentary fiber,
- vitamins (A, B, C, D, E).
Calcium in Dairy Products
Vitamins in combination with biologically significant elements favorably affect the myocardium and blood vessels. And dietary fiber prevents the formation of atherosclerotic plaques in the vessels.
Recommended products for hypertension include:
- beans and vegetables (spinach, beans, broccoli, carrots, pumpkin),
- fruits (dried apricots, peaches, bananas, apples, apricots, cranberries),
- skim milk products (milk, kefir, cottage cheese),
- cereal products (various cereals, wholemeal bread).
Nuts and Natural Oils
The most useful for the body are hazelnuts, almonds, walnuts, pistachios.They contain the polyunsaturated fats Omega 3 and Omega 6. These substances protect the vascular wall from thrombosis and atherosclerosis, increase immunity and protect the body from inflammatory diseases. You can also use natural nut-based oils, which are essentially a concentrate of nutrients.
Almost all vegetables are useful for hypertension. With some caution, hypertensive patients should consume onions, garlic and spinach. This is due to the fact that they contain many volatile (biologically active substances) that stimulate cardiac activity and thereby increase blood pressure.
Firstly, vegetables are rich in fiber (dietary fiber). Fiber helps:
- the removal of toxins from the body,
- maintaining normal intestinal microflora,
- maintaining optimal plasma glucose and cholesterol levels.
Secondly, vegetables have a lot of useful trace elements and antioxidants (potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, beta-carotene). These substances:
- tone up the nervous system
- increase stress resistance
- improve the functioning of the conduction system of the heart,
- produce an immunomodulatory effect.
The most recommended vegetables include:
The benefits of raw vegetables
It is a product unique in its qualities. The fact is that kefir contains a kefir fungus, as well as many probiotics (living microorganisms). These include bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. They have good activity against pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic bacteria, establish and increase the biological activity of the normal microflora of the gastrointestinal tract (gastrointestinal tract). In addition, vitamin K2, which is part of kefir, has an angioprotective effect on blood vessels and myocardial cells.
Sour-milk products incorporate such useful substances:
- Vitamin A (indispensable for normal vision and healthy skin),
- vitamin D (necessary for the formation of strong bone tissue),
- folic acid (necessary for the growth and development of the immune and circulatory system),
- calcium (takes part in blood coagulation, nerve impulse conduction).
Sour-milk products help with pressure
In addition, milk-based products have a positive effect on the protein composition of the blood. Namely, the albumin fraction is replenished. Albumin is involved in many vital processes in our body:
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- supports oncotic blood pressure. In simple words, it does not allow the liquid part of the blood to go beyond the vascular bed in the tissue. Clinically, albumin deficiency translates into “hungry edema,”
- neutralizes and binds toxic substances,
- takes part in the transport of vitamins, hormones, trace elements, fatty acids and medicinal substances. In many ways, the effectiveness of the drug depends on the amount of albumin.
Dairy products in the diet of hypertension can be divided into:
- recommended (milk, sour milk, yogurt, unsalted white cheeses),
- not recommended (salted and processed cheeses, smoked and yellow cheeses).
The best treatment for any ailment is prevention. It is most useful to know for people whose pressure figures are on the border of a high norm or for patients with burdened heredity.
High Pressure Salt
Preventive measures of arterial hypertension include:
- reduced consumption of salt (not more than 3 g per day),
- refusal of bad habits (smoking and drinking alcohol),
- rational nutrition (meals rich in trace elements),
- avoidance of stressful situations
- decrease in overweight due to moderate physical exertion,
- passing a preventive medical examination at least 2 times a year,
- normalization of sleep and wakefulness,
- timely treatment of concomitant diseases.
To increase the effectiveness of treatment and thereby increase the duration and quality of life, you must adhere to such recommendations:
- Strictly follow all doctor's prescriptions. This applies to the frequency of administration and dosage of drugs.
- Use the drugs at the same time. Such a scheme will ensure the maintenance of a constant concentration of the drug in the body.
- Start eating right. Eliminate fried, smoked foods from your diet. Instead, eat more fruits and vegetables.
- Control the consumption of salt (up to 3 g throughout the day).
- Protect yourself from nervous and physical stress.
- Increase your physical activity by taking walks in the fresh air.
- Plan your daily routine correctly.
- Relax fully.
Water is the basis of life
The usefulness of water for the body is difficult to overestimate. The human body is 70% water.
Water helps remove toxins
With the help of water in our body, the following processes occur:
- synthesis of intracerebral, intraarticular and serous fluid,
- full kidney function
- water-electrolyte balance support,
- transport of nutrients to cells,
- elimination of toxic products.
The amount of water in the body and blood pressure are closely related. Since with a decrease in bcc (volume of circulating blood), compensatory mechanisms immediately turn on, which leads to an increase in pressure. They are based on:
- increased heart rate,
- peripheral vasospasm
- water retention by reducing urine output and sodium excretion.
Chronic dehydration can play an important role in the development of hypertension. Therefore, it is important to drink at least 1.5 liters of water per day. In this case, you need to drink water without salt.
Ventilate the room regularly.
Breath and fresh air
Blood pressure depends on many factors. One of them is the content of CO2 (carbon dioxide) in the blood. An increased concentration of carbon dioxide stimulates chemoreceptors. The impulse from them goes to the vasomotor center. He analyzes this information and in response increases blood pressure. Accordingly, a low level of carbon dioxide leads to a decrease in pressure. This mechanism is the basis of lowering blood pressure through breathing exercises.
An example of one of them:
- Take a deep breath and hold your breath for 25 seconds.
- After this time, take a long exhale without much effort.
- Wait 35–40 seconds and take a deep breath again.
- Repeat this procedure up to 15 times.
Such an exercise will enrich the body with oxygen and increase the tone of the parasympathetic nervous system, which will lead to a decrease in pressure.
A walk in the fresh air will also be helpful. It strengthens the immune system, reduces the risk of depression, improves performance.
Avoid fried foods
The prognosis of the treatment of hypertension largely depends on a proper and balanced diet. A person suffering from this ailment should adhere to such rules in his diet:
- completely eliminate the intake of fried and smoked food,
- daily intake of salt should not exceed 3 grams,
- the calorie content of the food should meet the energy needs and in no way exceed it, since obesity is one of the risk factors for hypertension,
- preference is given to unsaturated fats, low-fat dairy products, fruits and vegetables,
- food should be rich in fiber, macronutrients and vitamins,
- drink plenty of water (at least 1.5 liters during the day).
First of all, massage has a relaxing property, which is important for arterial hypertension. This is due to the fact that stress is one of the main causes of arterial hypertension.
It also helps to relieve symptoms caused by high blood pressure:
- flickering of "flies" before the eyes,
These properties are associated with the fact that massage techniques inhibit the excitability of the central nervous system (central nervous system), stimulate skin-visceral reflexes, and activate the depressive department of the vasomotor center.
Massage techniques are aimed at the neck, head, collar and paravertebral zones.
The benefits of massage for hypertension
The basic principles of massage:
- massage should be carried out with complete relaxation of the patient,
- it is necessary to start the massage with stroking,
- the intensity of movements should increase gradually,
- all movements are performed from the periphery to the center,
- each patient should have an individual approach.
An example of self-massage of the back of the neck:
- Start by lightly stroking your neck from top to bottom.
- Rub the neck area with circular motions. Start from the beginning of hair growth to the shoulder joints.
- Pinch the skin of the neck from top to bottom, and then in the opposite direction.
Massage is contraindicated in cancer, diabetes, open tuberculosis.
How to lower blood cholesterol?
Elevated blood cholesterol leads to blood viscosity and the formation of clots that attach to the inner walls of arteries and interfere with normal blood flow. Cholesterol plaques are a place of accumulation of fat-like substances (lipids) and complex carbohydrates, which are subsequently overgrown with connective tissue and can partially or completely block the lumen of the artery.
In the area of their formation, ischemia develops, which leads to oxygen starvation, malnutrition and metabolic processes in the tissues. Further, such a circulatory disorder causes the development of many cardiovascular pathologies: myocardial infarction, strokes, angina pectoris, lesions of the vessels of the lower extremities, etc.
To prevent the emergence of these serious diseases that can cause disability and death, you can use various methods to lower cholesterol. For this, non-drug and drug methods can be used. In this article, we will answer the question “how to lower blood cholesterol?” And consider some ways to reduce its content without the use of drugs. They are quite effective and can help avoid the development of chronic diseases of the heart and blood vessels.
When to start lowering cholesterol?
The basis for the correction of lipid metabolism is a change in the biochemical analysis of blood, namely, an increase in the level of total cholesterol and low density lipoproteins.
You can learn about increasing cholesterol only from the data of a biochemical blood test, which determines the total level of cholesterol. Its indicators normally range from 5.0 to 5.2 mmol / L.
With an increase in these values, a lipid profile is required that reflects the level of HDL ("good cholesterol") and LDL ("bad cholesterol"). Their indicators are normally as follows:
- total cholesterol - 3.0-6.0 mmol / l,
- HDL - in men, fluctuations up to 0.7-1.73 are permissible, in women - up to 0.86-2.28 mmol / l,
- LDL - in men, fluctuations up to 2.25-4.82 are permissible, in women - up to 1.92-4.51 mmol / l,
- triglycerides - less than 1.7 mmol / l (indicators increase in proportion to age).
To determine the risk of cholesterol plaques and the development of atherosclerosis, an atherogenic coefficient (CA) is calculated from the lipid profile:
(total cholesterol - HDL) / HDL = KA
Its indicator should be no more than 3. With age, it gradually rises, and by the age of 40-60 it can reach 3.0-3.5. After 60 years, the atherogenic coefficient may become higher.
If the atherogenic coefficient is exceeded, you should begin to lower cholesterol. Ways to "fight the enemy" should be determined by the doctor. As a rule, they begin to lower the level of “bad cholesterol” with the help of non-drug methods, and only if they are ineffective they resort to prescribing drugs.
The main methods for lowering cholesterol without drugs
To prevent the formation of cholesterol plaques, it is necessary to eliminate the causes of the increase in the level of this substance. For this, the following methods are used:
- Stress management.
- Decrease in sugar intake.
- Increased physical activity.
- Normalization of weight.
- Proper nutrition.
- Raising the level of "good cholesterol."
- Rejection of bad habits.
- Folk methods.
It is important to combine these methods, because only their combination can help achieve the desired results in reducing "bad cholesterol." For example, only the fight against adynamia or taking infusions of medicinal herbs will not help to improve blood vessels.
Consider all these points in more detail.
During stress, ideal conditions are created for the formation of cholesterol plaques. The following physiological reactions occur in the body:
- stressful situations lead to the release of hormones into the blood such as adrenaline, angiotensin and serotonin, which spasm arteries and, causing them to narrow, contribute to the formation of cholesterol deposits,
- In response to stress in the blood, the level of fatty acids rises, and the liver processes them into "bad cholesterol", which gradually settles on the walls of the arteries and leads to their narrowing.
Obviously, controlling stress can prevent cholesterol levels from rising.
To do this, you need to provide yourself with a good rest, avoid an irregular working day, normalize sleep and spend your weekend in the fresh air. Stressful situations can also be prevented by changing attitudes to various failures and experiences. Reducing a heightened sense of responsibility, a positive attitude in any situation and limiting the flow of negativity from outside - such work on oneself will certainly help reduce the amount of stress.
During laboratory tests, it was noted that after consuming sweets, cholesterol levels increased. This is explained by the fact that an increase in the level of glucose in the blood leads to the conversion of a significant part of it into "bad cholesterol."
These processes can be prevented by limiting the intake of sugary foods and sugar. It is better to replace them with natural products: honey, dried fruits, stevia, fresh berries and fruits. Such sweets will be less harmful to the arteries, but their consumption should also be reasonable.
Increased physical activity and normalization of weight
Physical activity helps break down "bad cholesterol" and cleanses the blood of excess fat that comes with food. It is noted that it is jogging that contributes to a faster decrease in cholesterol. For people who regularly jog, their vessels get rid of unhealthy fats 70% faster than those who just do physical exercises.
Physical work in the fresh air, dancing, gymnastics, body flex and walking in the park - all these activities not only increase physical activity, but also improve mood, increase emotional and muscle tone. Such a combined effect also helps to lower cholesterol and has a beneficial effect on the state of blood vessels.
The intensity of physical activity should be determined individually. It depends on concomitant diseases and age.
In addition to lowering cholesterol, an increase in physical activity contributes to the fight against excess weight. For example, many people whose motor activity is limited due to retirement or the nature of work continue to consume the same servings of food as before the change of circumstances. Over time, they develop obesity, which always contributes to an increase in cholesterol and significantly increases the load on the heart and blood vessels. In such cases, static exercises will help them reduce body weight to acceptable values.
Normalization of weight should be carried out with the help of a balanced diet. A day of weight loss should not immediately begin to adhere to "fashionable diets", since most of them are unbalanced and can be harmful. The fight against obesity should begin with the abandonment of the habit of overeating and creating a rational menu.
Enriching the diet with fresh vegetables and fruits (in combination with other doctor's recommendations) will help normalize blood cholesterol.
Unfortunately, the diet of most modern people is oversaturated with fats and carbohydrates. This inevitably leads to an increase in cholesterol and the development of heart and vascular diseases. To reduce the level of "bad cholesterol", you should follow these rules:
- In the daily diet should be present 10-15% of proteins, 30-35% of fats and 50-60% of carbohydrates.
- The diet of healthy people should include unsaturated, coming with low-fat dairy products, poultry and fish, and saturated, coming with liver, offal and butter, fats, but the proportion of unsaturated should prevail. Sick people should completely exclude the consumption of foods containing saturated fats.
- To lower cholesterol, it is necessary to exclude pork, meat of waterfowl, sausages and buns from the diet.
- If you need to lower cholesterol, you should not completely exclude chicken eggs and cheese from the diet. Their consumption can simply be limited.
- Eat lean meats (rabbit, chicken, veal and turkey).
- All dairy products must be non-greasy.
- In your daily diet you need to include foods that help reduce
Why is it important to make creatine kinase (SC)?
When cells containing creatine kinau are damaged, the enzyme enters the bloodstream.The determination of creatine kinase and its isoenzymes is mainly used in the diagnosis and monitoring of myocardial infarction and myopathies. Creatine kinase is one of the earliest markers of myocardial infarction (enzyme activity in blood serum increases 6-12 times). An increase in CPK activity can be detected 4-8 hours after a heart attack, a maximum is achieved after 12-24 hours, a decrease in level occurs after 2-4 days. The activity of creatine kinase, as a rule, correlates with the severity and size of the heart attack. In the first 12 hours after a pain attack, enzyme activity is increased in 89% of cases of large focal and in 62% of cases of small focal myocardial infarction. On the first day, the most rational determination of CPK activity with an interval of 4-6 hours, on the following days - with an interval of 12 hours. A repeated increase in the activity of creatine kinase may result from repeated myocardial infarction, an attack of tachycardia, and also indicate the addition of myocarditis or pericarditis.
Creatine kinase activity is significantly increased in all types of muscular dystrophy. High values of serum enzyme activity are observed with viral myositis, polymyositis, rhabdomyolysis, etc. A significant increase in serum CPK levels is observed with inadequately high muscle loads. In muscle diseases with a neurogenic source, the enzyme activity is within normal limits.
Serum CPK activity can be increased in patients with acute cerebrovascular disease, as well as after brain operations or due to cerebral ischemia.
In 60% of patients with hypothyroidism, there is a moderate increase in creatine kinase activity (up to 5 times compared with normal values), sometimes the increase in values can be more pronounced (up to 50 times). In some cases, hypothyroidism predisposes to coronary heart disease. In contrast, with hyperthyroidism, serum CPK activity tends to be at the level of the lower limit of reference values.
Increases in the norm are observed with the following diseases of creatine kinase (SC)
Surgical and neurosurgical interventions.
Violations of the blood supply to any muscle (dermatomyositis, polymyositis, myocarditis).
Myodystrophy of all types (especially Duchenne dystrophy).
Sometimes - diseases of the central nervous system (schizophrenia, manic-depressive psychosis, epilepsy), head trauma. .
Malignant tumors (cancer of the bladder, breast, intestines, lung, uterus, prostate, liver).
Congestive heart failure.
Taking certain medications (corticosteroids, barbiturates, drugs).
In healthy people with high physical activity - performing sports exercises, hard physical work.
For pain in the heart, suspected myocardial infarction, myopathy, and other dangerous diseases, the doctor prescribes an auxiliary diagnostic method to determine the level of the creatine kinase enzyme (CC). He is well known to specialists, but incomprehensible to patients. Consider the essence of the analysis, the form of the enzyme, the norm in adults and children, the reasons for the increase and treatment of such conditions.
What is creatine kinase?
KK is a specific enzyme contained in the mitochondria and cytoplasm of the most important organs. Most of it is in the striated (skeletal) and cardiac muscle tissue, less in the brain. Protein accelerates the breakdown of ATP molecules (phosphorylation reaction) and the release of the solar energy accumulated in them, which is consumed by the cell absolutely on all life processes. In general, the process is as follows:
Creatine + ATP ↔ Creatine Phosphate + ADP.
Hence the second name of the catalyst for creatiphosphokinase (CPK).
Creatine kinase is a heterogeneous dimer consisting of 2 different parts, each with the corresponding name:
Two subunits form 3 possible combinations (isomers), which differ in composition, spatial structure, properties and localization:
The rate of creatine kinase is higher in children, because they are actively growing and developing, and for this they need a lot of energy, as well as in men, endowed with higher strength indicators by nature.
The concentration of the enzyme in excess of average values is typical for African Americans with greater muscle mass, compared with representatives of the European race.
In healthy people, the ratio between the various fractions of KK (%) - I: II: III as 0: 6: 94 is observed. A 100% increase in the MB isoform in the first day after a heart attack confirms the diagnosis.
An important indicator is the level of KK-MV in relation to the total creatine kinase. With values greater than 6%, the doctor prescribes an additional examination to determine the etiology of the condition.
Table number 2. The norm of QC depending on age and gender.
Causes of Creatine Kinase Rise
When cell membranes are damaged, creatine kinase is in the blood. By its concentration, one can judge where the pathological process takes place:
- about brain cancer says an increase in the MM isomer,
- problems in skeletal muscle and partly in the heart are indicated by a high concentration of BB,
- MI is judged by the number of MB fractions.
In diagnostics, a blood test is most often used to determine the KK-MV isomer. Increased creatine kinase is a marker in the detection of hypertension , as well as myocardial infarction (MI), helps determine the pathology and follow the dynamics of its treatment.
The CPK level in a patient after a heart attack rises 3-4 hours after a heart attack, the maximum values are reached after 17-25 hours. According to the results of the analysis, the patient is hospitalized. After 3 days, the amount of enzyme returns to normal.
An inverse relationship was established between the level of triiodothyronine, thyroxine (thyroid hormones) and the amount of CC. Massive destruction of hepatocytes does not lead to an increase in the concentration of the enzyme.
With myocarditis, this indicator rises longer, which distinguishes it from an acute form of heart attack.
Initially, a QC test was used to diagnose myopathies. The concentration of the enzyme increases with high physical activity, convulsions, meningitis, intoxication with sleeping pills. The same picture is observed with hemorrhages, tumor processes, muscular dystrophy, pressure sores, injuries.
Creatine kinase in the blood is determined with primary and recurrent myocardial infarction , if necessary, control of its course, pathologies of skeletal muscles, cancerous tumors, with hypothyroidism, symptoms of ischemia. A high concentration of the enzyme is observed with exacerbation of radiation sickness, frequent drug injections.
The enzyme is inactive, that is, its level is lowered, with underdeveloped muscle mass, a sedentary lifestyle, after taking aspirin, during pregnancy, alcoholic damage to liver cells, collagenoses.
To determine the level of CPK, blood is taken from an empty stomach vein. On the eve of the manipulation, hunger for 8-12 hours is indicated. Before analysis, it is forbidden to drink alcohol, since when intoxicated, the concentration of active protein rises by 160 times. Also limited are sports, physical work. You can not take a number of drugs, for example, statins, which lower cholesterol, and leading to rhabdomyliosis - the breakdown of muscle cells due to the development of the inflammatory process.
Increase the concentration of QC:
- a number of anesthetics
- some antibiotics
- antifungal drugs
With an increased level of enzyme, the doctor may review the prescription and change the purpose.
In the first 2 days after a heart attack, QC analysis is performed every 8-12 hours. Based on its results, the vastness of the pathology is judged, its prognosis is made.
Creatine kinase mv is studied along with the activity of total QC to determine the% ratio. In patients with IF, this indicator is more than 5-6%. The results depend on the reagents and research methodology, therefore, for greater reliability, the analysis is carried out in one biochemical laboratory. This allows you to get the correct data, based on which an accurate diagnosis is made.
Level Up Treatment
For patients with high QC, the doctor selects the treatment regimen for the underlying disease. No less important is the diet, a healthy lifestyle, implying a lack of emotional overload, alcohol and nicotine. Moderate physical activity, long walks, a stable mental state are useful.
The diet includes products that reduce the concentration of bad cholesterol, stimulate normal heart activity and improve the condition of blood vessels, among them:
- peas, beans
- carrots, apples, prunes, oats,
- gingko biloba (extract) to clean the coronary arteries, prevent their obstruction.
Garlic deserves special attention. It contains allicin - a compound to combat various cardiac problems. One clove per day will improve the functioning of the heart and blood vessels.
- Consumption of a mixture of Indian ginseng with milk. The plant is a powerful antioxidant, helps to reduce pressure, improves the thyroid gland, which affects the level of QC.
- Reception of ascorbic acid. The daily intake of vitamin C is 45 mg. It is obtained with strawberries, black currants, sweet peppers, rosehips, lemons.
With a deficiency of magnesium, cramps and muscle cramps develop. You can get a valuable trace element with leafy vegetables, spinach, beets, bananas, pumpkin.
To support muscle strength, foods containing omega-3 and -6 unsaturated fatty acids are used:
- The first are many in nuts, in flaxseeds, milk, eggs, salmon, anchovies, sardines.
- The second is found in vegetable oils, whole grains, avocados.
An important recommendation is to limit sugar and salt. With an excess of the latter, blood pressure rises. Excesses of simple carbohydrates adversely affect the functionality of the pancreas, disrupt the metabolism, lead to diabetes, overweight. Subsequently, blood vessels become clogged with cholesterol plaques, their lumen narrows, and atherosclerosis develops.
It is necessary to come to normalization of weight gradually, so as not to provoke irreversible pathological processes. After all, the already affected myocardium suffers greatly from sudden weight loss and weight gain.
With a change in lifestyle, the level of the enzyme normalizes. This happens especially quickly against the background of therapeutic measures to eliminate the underlying disease.
In the presence of certain diseases or suspicions of them, the patient may be prescribed in order to determine the level of creatine kinase. This important indicator, when elevated, can indicate a variety of health problems. The most important and dangerous to health of them are damage to the heart muscle - myocardium.
Creatine kinase is a specific enzyme found in skeletal muscle, in the myocardium, in cells, lungs, and that is, the most important organs of the human body. The level of this enzyme changes with damage to cells of these organs, therefore, it can serve as a diagnostic tool for various pathologies.
At the same time, this highly accurate and sensitive indicator can become a marker of changes in the muscles of the skeleton, in the myocardium, and serve as an auxiliary determinant of the presence of heart attacks, and angina pectoris. If creatine kinase is elevated, this may indicate the presence of serious health problems, so the importance of this enzyme for the diagnosis of dangerous diseases can hardly be overestimated.
Analysis for creatine kinase is prescribed as an auxiliary diagnostic method for patient complaints of pain in the heart, behind the sternum, extending to the left arm, under the scapula, and so on. Also, such an analysis can be prescribed in cases of suspected diseases associated with impaired normal functioning of skeletal muscles, for example, with myopathy and muscular dystrophy.
Most often, the level of creatine kinase is checked for early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction.
Its amount in the blood increases sharply in the first hours after the onset of pain, therefore, by this result, you can very quickly hospitalize the patient and save his life.
A test for this enzyme is carried out with a biochemical blood test. The requirements for preparing for it are exactly the same as for other blood tests. This fasting for at least 8 hours before blood sampling, a ban on alcohol and smoking, taking a number of medicines, as well as protecting the body from stress and physical overwork.
Norms of creatine kinase vary depending on the gender and age of the patient. On average, the level of creatine kinase in an adult male should be in the range of 172 units / liter, and in women - no more than 146 units / liter. If creatine kinase is elevated, this may become the basis for a deeper and wider examination of the patient in order to identify the causes of this condition.
Reasons for the increase
Not always in cases where, according to the results of analyzes, creatine kinase is increased, this is a consequence of a disease or severe pathology. In some cases, this phenomenon is temporary and it passes on its own.
Possible reasons for increasing the level of CPK:
- First of all, we are talking about an increase in numbers with severe alcohol intoxication. With a significant amount of alcohol taken, the level of this enzyme can be in high positions for about two days. Interestingly, in chronic alcoholics, creatine kinase practically does not go beyond the normal range.
- Also, such a rise in indicators can occur when a doctor appoints a course of intramuscular injections. The body responds to an injection, and the level of the enzyme in the blood jumps sharply.
- Approximately the same picture will be observed after surgical intervention associated with dissection or any other effect on the muscles or their groups. The body perceives such an action as trauma, and a shock condition is accompanied by a sharp increase in creatine kinase in the blood. A high level can last several days.
- As evidence of trouble in the body, a significant increase in the data of this enzyme is noted at. This is one of the results of the tests, according to which you can most often suspect the presence of problems with.
- Also, large numbers in blood samples may indicate the presence of severe hypokalemia. Both diseases have an extremely negative effect on the state of skeletal muscles, so measuring the level of this enzyme is extremely important for diagnosis.
- Sometimes an increase in the level of the enzyme is noted in some diseases associated with damage to the brain and central nervous system. These include the following diseases: epilepsy, psychiatric disorders, as well.
- The level of creatine kinase changes during pregnancy, as well as in people with powerful, "sports" muscles. With a deficit of muscle mass, exhaustion and anorexia, the level of indicators decreases relative to the norm. The same thing appears with a sedentary lifestyle.
- Also, the presence of high numbers of creatine kinase can indicate various heart diseases associated with impaired normal functioning of the heart muscle, as well as the presence of such deadly health threats as tetanus and the development of malignant neoplasms.
All data on an elevated level is the reason for conducting in-depth examinations to clarify the diagnosis, since in fact they indicate only the presence of generalized ill-being, which must be specified.
How to normalize the indicator
Those patients for whom, according to the analysis of creatine kinase is increased, should pay more attention to the treatment of the underlying disease. An important role is also played by a proper balanced diet, rejection of bad habits, a calm and balanced lifestyle. Moderate exercise, walking in the fresh air and stabilization of the state of the nervous system are recommended.
In your diet you need to eat more foods that positively affect the condition of the heart and muscle tissues. These are garlic, artichokes, legumes, nuts, broccoli, oats, seafood, as well as gingko biloba extract, which stimulates the proper functioning of blood vessels.
It is recommended to reduce the intake of salt and sugar. Excess salt can lead to an increase in blood pressure and will cause the development of vascular pathologies. They, in turn, can lead to disruption of the heart and will cause the development of severe heart disease up to a heart attack. Excess sugar can “break up”, cause the development of metabolic disorders and the appearance. This leads to obesity, as a result of which the vessels are clogged with atherosclerotic plaques.
Narrowing the lumen of blood vessels is a direct path to the pathology of the heart muscle and the appearance of a heart attack.
So a healthy diet with an increased level of creatine kinase is the first preventive measure. On the same basis, patients can be advised to lose weight. Only this must be done correctly and very slowly. Too rapid loss of a large amount of fat can cause pathological processes in the body, mostly irreversible.
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К тому же существенно возрастает риск появления «качелей веса», когда избыток его то появляется, то исчезает. Это перегружает уже и так пораженный миокард, что зачастую приводит к его заболеваниям или поражениям. In any situation, the transition to a healthy and rational lifestyle helps to improve the body and reduce the threat of dangerous diseases. At the same time, the level of creatine kinase gradually normalizes on its own against the background of treatment of the underlying disease.
(creatine kinase,) in the blood: what it is, the reasons for the increase in the level of the enzyme.
Among the numerous enzymes that is contained in human blood, there is one enzyme that is needed in every cell of the organism, and most of all - by cells of the nervous tissue and muscles. This item is called creatine kinase or creatine phosphokinase .
KFK: what is it?
Creatine kinase is called an enzyme , which accelerates the transfer of the phosphoryl residue from adenosine triphosphoric acid (ATP) to creatine. In this case, adenosine diphosphate is formed, and the energy that was previously hidden in the high-energy bonds of ATP is released and used. These complex biochemical processes provide the energy that is needed to reduce them.
Since muscles contract almost continuously (heart function, intestinal motility, regulation of blood vessel lumens, swallowing, etc.), creatine kinase is also continuously used by the body.
Creatine kinase, like other enzymes, is a protein, and therefore consists of amino acids. Amino acids enter the body with protein food, and then the necessary proteins or other amino acids are formed from them.
Muscle loss or lack of food proteins can affect the amount of creatine kinase in the blood.
Reasons for the decline
Of course, in certain situations, creatinine kinase can drop dramatically. This happens in the main period, when the muscle mass of a person decreases. What fluctuations in muscle mass can be a consequence of natural processes, so to the results of various diseases. Usually muscle mass decreases with age, this phenomenon has received name sarcopenia . A painful decrease in muscle mass is observed, for example, with prolonged starvation, lack of protein food, infectious lesions of muscle tissue.
Also, a decrease in creatine kinase can be observed with alcoholic liver damage, cirrhosis. Overdose also leads to similar results. ascorbic acid, aspirin, amikocin . pregnant women also have a slight decrease in creatine kinase concentration, which quickly replenishes after childbirth.
Not an increase, not a decrease in creatine kinase is not a specific sign by which one can judge the presence of any disease in the body.
We see that there are a large number of diseases associated with fluctuations in the concentration of this enzyme, so before making conclusions about the patient, an additional one should be done.
The level of CPK in women
There are a number of features of the female body associated with the exchange of creatine kinase. Firstly, due to the fact that women have less developed skeletal muscles, the concentration of this enzyme in his blood is noticeably lower than in men.
Secondly, the amount of creatine kinase during pregnancy may drop slightly while the amount of this enzyme in the placenta of placental blood, on the contrary, is higher than in the rest of the human bloodstream. This affects the amount of blood enzyme in a newborn baby, which is also higher.
Thirdly, a gene of congenital muscular dystrophy is often found in young women. This is a rare genetic disease, the gene of which is located on the X chromosome, as well as the gene responsible for hemophilia. Like hemophilia, boys are more likely to suffer. In a woman carrying the gene with 100% probability the son will be sick .
If a daughter is born, and the father did not suffer from the disease, she, like the mother, will have only a slight deviation in the amount of creatine kinase.
Changes in the body during pregnancy
During pregnancy, the level of creatine kinase decreases slightly, which practically does not affect either the well-being of the mother or her health in the future. This decrease is associated not only with the bearing of the child, but with the fact that the lifestyle of the future mother is changing, or physical activity is significantly reduced, especially in the later stages.
Also, the creatine kinase time is increased in the fetus. For comparison: if an adult woman has 167 units of creatine kinase per liter of blood, then the fetus in late pregnancy - 650 and more .
Up to a year, the amount of creatine kinase continues to fall; at the age of about a year, it is about 200 units per liter. Then, due to the increasing activity of the child, the amount of creatine kinase increases again. In time, this coincides with teaching a child to walk, run, manipulate objects, and so on.
But, if by the age of three the amount of creatine kinase reaches 220 units then it starts to fall again, and by the age of six it is already 149 units.
From 9-10 years old, the child begins puberty, and the concentration of blood enzymes in girls and boys begin to vary.
The reasons for the deviation from the norm in children are the same as in adults, with the exception, of course, of pregnancy. It should be borne in mind that children more often than adults will overwork, and also often lack protein due to malnutrition.
What threatens deviation from the norm?
Creatine kinase itself is not a toxic substance, therefore, the excess does not threaten the human body.
Serious threats to him are those diseases that caused an excess of this enzyme, for example, cancer, heart attacks, inflammatory processes in the muscles, various poisonings, and so on.
Creatine kinase deficiency may affect muscle and nervous system . It causes muscle weakness, fatigue, dizziness, problems with attention and the ability to perform physical work.
Indications for analysis
The study is prescribed in the following cases:
- Suspicion of myocardial infarction , (or in the process of its treatment),
- Suspected cancer
- Suspected skeletal muscle disease and such diseases,
- Severe injuries during which skeletal muscles were damaged (for example, open fractures, sprain, etc.).
In order to find out what concentration of creatine kinase in your blood, you can go to a regular hospital. Creatine kinase concentration is determined during a routine biochemical blood test. One day is enough to get the test results. Such an analysis is worth about 370 rubles. To carry it out, take it from a vein. Directions for analysis can be obtained from a therapist, oncologist, cardiologist, and other specialists.
To prepare for that people should be just like any other: analysis done in the morning on an empty stomach , 8 hours after the last meal. 3 days before the analysis, it is advisable not to smoke, do not drink, do not take medicine. Since the amount of the enzyme directly depends on physical activity, it is also impossible to engage in sports or heavy physical labor.
Thus, creatine phosphokinase is an enzyme, that is, a biological catalyst, without which the reaction of converting adenosine triphosphate to adenosine diphosphate does not occur, it is this reaction that is the main source of energy for all living cells, including human cells. The cell that consumes the most energy: muscle cells and neurons, are most in need of creatine phosphokinase.
The main purpose of creatine kinase analysis is the diagnosis of muscle diseases, especially heart muscle.
Creatine phosphokinase is an enzyme that catalyzes ATP, a universal source of energy and creatine. It is consumed by the body during active physical activity. It can be detected in the muscle cells of the heart, brain, lungs and skeleton muscles.
Role in the body
From a clinical point of view, the following fractions are most valuable:
- MV - increased activity indicates damage to myocardial cells,
- MM - an enzyme located in the cells of muscle tissue and increasing when they are damaged,
- BB - An increase in the level occurs during pathological processes in the brain.
If any of the cells listed above is damaged, the amount of creatine phosphokinase in the blood increases. What this is not all know, this term is most often used by cardiologists. The determination of the enzyme is carried out for early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction, this indicator allows you to notice deviations in work in 2 hours after the first pain attack.
The quantitative value normalizes after a few days, so a later analysis may be ineffective. A sharp jump is possible with myocarditis, but the indicators will not be so pronounced than with a heart attack.
A reduced level of creatine kinase is often found in diseases of the thyroid gland.
An increase in the level of creatine kinase often occurs during trauma to muscle fibers and their disease, for example, during muscle dystrophy. Some diseases of the brain, surgical intervention can also give an overestimated rate of the enzyme. Creatine kinase will almost always be higher than normal when drinking large doses of alcohol and drugs.
80% of people suffering from hypothyroidism, the level of the enzyme will exceed the norm, this is due to the fact that the disease damages muscle fibers.
If you try to determine the amount of creatine kinase in a person who is abusing alcohol, you will find that it is more than it should be. However, in chronic alcoholics, the meaning remains unchanged.
An increase in creatine kinase occurs with intramuscular injections, the value normalizes in a few days.
Exceeding the normal level, the indicator is found in many diseases of the brain, for example, with meningitis, uremic coma, encephalitis, epilepsy. In each case, the amount of enzyme will be slightly different.
In people with schizophrenia, an increase in creatase is determined. At the same time, the digital indicator can deviate both upward and downward with insufficient muscle mass in humans.
How to take an analysis at KFK
Blood for determination of CPK is taken from a vein. It is important to observe the basic rules:
- Biological material is delivered on an empty stomach, on an empty stomach. You can’t eat before research for 10-12 hours. You can drink, but only clean water without gases.
- Half an hour before the analysis, you can not play sports, run, jump and overexert. This may lead to false results.
- Half an hour before blood donation, you can not smoke.
Measurements are carried out in units of 1 liter.SharePinTweetSendSendSend