Writing is one of the most difficult skills a child has to learn.
The ability to write requires not only good development of the small muscles of the hand, coordination of movements, but also perseverance, patience.
The development of these particular skills needs to be given special attention before moving on to writing capital letters, syllables and words.
The better the child’s hand is prepared for writing, the easier it will be for him to master the process later.
The formation of hand movements begins gradually over the first half of a child’s life: the hand, tightly clenched into a cam, is straightened, fingers are trying to perform the simplest movements to capture objects.
However, before the children's pen with its actions begins to resemble the hand of an adult, a rather considerable time passes.
From 10–11 months to a year, the actions become functional: the child tries to use the item as intended. During this period, the actions of the hands are improved: the cam is unclenched, the fingers act more independently.
In the second year, the baby does not just manipulate objects, but wants to find out what actions can be performed with them.
The third year is determined by the fact that the child actively and purposefully begins to use the objects for their intended purpose and experiment with them. Hands of a child in constant motion at work.
At the age of 4 years, a child, as a rule, ends up in kindergarten - among many games and didactic materials.
With his hands, he begins to master sensory "standards": size, length, shape, surface structure. The kid goes from sensation to perception, from perception to presentation, from representation to understanding.
In the fifth year of life, previously acquired skills are improved, new interests appear. The kid happily demonstrates crafts made by himself, and talks about how they were made.
If the child’s hand was developed from birth, then he improves his “manual” skills: he masters more complex ways of folding, bending, winding and pouring, uses fabric, paper, wire, foil, utility and natural materials, uses various tools and materials. Writing numbers and letters on stencils becomes an attractive occupation. This is the last step in preparing your hand for writing.
Up to 4–5 years, you should not give your child pens and felt-tip pens: using them does not require pressure, but drawing with pencils requires certain efforts, which forms the pressure necessary for further writing.
At an early age, simple and colored pencils, crayons should be used, and pens and felt-tip pens should be postponed until elementary school.
What can help to prepare your hand for writing:
Tactile Perception Games “Train” the sensitivity of the fingers, helping them learn how to determine such qualities of an object as softness and hardness, shape, weight, temperature, texture. “Recognizing” objects by touch by a child in the future makes it possible to hold the hand correctly, to regulate the strength of its grip and improves muscle tone, which makes the movements of the arm more accurate.
Massage is a type of gymnastics. It has a general strengthening effect on the muscular system, increasing elasticity and contractility of muscles. Hand massage helps relieve motor tension in the muscles of the hands and develops flexibility and mobility of the fingers.
Finger games play a special role in the development of fine motor skills. Finger games are a dramatization of rhymed stories and fairy tales with your fingers. They allow you to adjust the movements of each finger individually and relative to each other, train the accuracy of motor reactions, develop dexterity, the ability to control their movements, and focus on one type of activity. Finger games, as it were, reflect the reality of the world around us - objects, animals, people, their activities, natural phenomena. During finger games, children, repeating the movements of adults, activate the motor skills of the hands.
Designer and mosaic work also aims to improve coordination of hand movements and the development of touch. Details of the mosaic and the designer come in different shapes of size and color. First, you can offer your child simple tasks (sorting mosaic details by color, size or shape, laying out horizontal or vertical tracks, simple patterns), then - learn to build images according to the model and yourself.
Modeling clay, clay and dough It develops fine motor skills well, strengthens the muscles of the fingers, develops “subtle” movements of the hand, and strengthens the skills of tactile examination (in the process of sculpting, it is constantly necessary to knead, roll or flatten something).
Drawing improves coordination of finger and hand movements, helps to overcome insecurity and stiffness of movements. This activity is very useful and loved by all children! After all, you can draw in different materials and ways - on paper, cardboard, snow, sand, a foggy window and asphalt. The kid can be asked to circle the stencil or transfer the picture through tracing paper, paint it, or draw it yourself.
Physical exercises train small muscles of the hand well. They are based on grasping movements and dosage of hand strength and contribute to the development of precision movements. Here are some examples of these activities.
Gloves games. Sew the fabric Velcro on the glove so that your thumb can stick to the rest. Alternately “stick” the thumb to the rest of the fingers.
"Dry pool". Fill a large container with cereal, beans, peas, beans, pasta, plastic corks, caps from felt-tip pens, etc. Ask your child to lower his hands in the “pool” and let him find the little toys hidden there.
Games with laces. Offer your child colorful bright shoelaces: let him tie them, bind them, lay out figures, letters and numbers from them on the table.
The readiness of the hand for writing can be assessed by conducting tests at home.
Have your child shade the shape or outline of the item.
Normal: strokes should be even, parallel, spaced at the same distance from each other, not going beyond the borders of the image.
Suggest coloring the item in the picture.
Normal: strokes should be smooth, made with medium pressure, without spaces, taking into account the outlines of the borders.
Offer to continue the given pattern in a notebook with a large cage.
Normal: the child sees the cell, its size, the task performs accurately, strictly according to the model, in the presence of a slope, it also makes a slope.
Starting to teach your child to write, tune in to the fact that not everything will work out right away. Most likely, the successes will be modest at first: the kids squeeze the pencil while writing, and their fingers get tired very quickly. Do not force the child to write too long and regularly (after 3-5 minutes) do relaxation exercises (squeeze and unclench your fingers several times, gently massage your forearms and hands). Do not scold the baby and do not compare his achievements with the successes of other children. Having discouraged the desire for learning in this way, in the future it will be simply impossible to teach him how to write beautifully. Save all children's work and after a while compare the results, noting clear progress.
How to instill a child with a love of writing?
Your persistent attempts to teach your child to write too early may fail. But this does not mean that you should not support the cognitive side of this process and promote literacy skills that will ultimately contribute to literate writing. In the end, curiosity will prevail, and your baby will want to master the letter. But when this moment comes, focus all your attention on the structure and meaning of what he writes.
To teach a child literacy, including writing, read him interesting books as often as possible: long and short stories, with or without pictures, rhymes and proverbs, old classics and new works. Even when the baby learns to read on its own, still continue to read to him. Do this from infancy to middle school. Set specific hours and turn reading into a pleasant home ritual.
Make writing an important part of your life. Let the child see what you write and how exactly you do it: edit, correct, cross out, rewrite completely. Whether it will be letters to your grandmother who does not own a computer, poems or solving crosswords in a magazine - let the child understand by his own example what it means to be a writer.
Many children find it difficult to fine motor skills associated with writing letters, so they do not like copybooks. In this case, you can go from afar. There are comfortable chalk and slate boards that contribute well to the development of early writing skills. Children consider such an accessory a real entertainment, where writing letters, syllables and words becomes a pleasure for them.
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And in addition to the above, we suggest learning 2 simple ways that will help your child learn how to write with a pen. Do not miss the interesting video below!