Thrombosis is a disease caused by accelerated and excessive blood clotting, which leads to the formation of clots that clog the lumen of the veins and arteries and interfere with healthy circulation. The number of people with cardiovascular diseases is constantly growing, and the main danger - the possibility of death - prompts you to act even before the development of pathology. Prevention of thrombosis is possible, many patients have observed improvement after regular follow-up of the recommendations of specialists on lifestyle adjustment.
Who is at risk
It will be useful to many to make changes in their lifestyle, but there are groups of people who may develop thrombosis more likely than others. They need, firstly, to be regularly observed by a doctor in order to identify the dynamics of their condition, and secondly, to adhere to preventive measures. The following categories of people are at risk:
- Men over 40
- women with menopause syndrome
- overweight people
- patients with heart and vascular diseases,
- patients with diseases that affect blood coagulation,
- people who are addicted to alcohol or smoking,
- sedentary people
- cancer patients
- people who often get into stressful situations,
- people eating junk food.
In addition, a hereditary predisposition may affect the possibility of thrombosis. The risk of developing the disease increases in pregnant women and people who have to stay in the same position for a long time - sitting or standing.
Thrombosis is better prevented than subsequently treated, since blockage of the vessels is fraught with tragic consequences.
At first, the thrombus formed is static, it is attached to a section of a vein or artery, but with further development it becomes larger and can come off. A blood clot moves through the vessels until it clogs one of them, which can lead to a vital organ. Most often, a blood clot affects the heart.
Medications for prevention
The most radical way to prevent blood clots in your vessels is to take medications. This method should be prescribed exclusively by a doctor, since only he can assess the possible benefits and harm to the body from taking certain drugs. Most often, the prevention of blood clots with medication is prescribed after surgery or in the presence of diseases that are likely to be complicated by blockage of blood vessels.
The most gentle drug in relation to the body in this case is Aspirin. It acts not only as an antipyretic, its effect is quite extensive, in particular, it dilutes the blood. As a result of this, stagnation does not form, which subsequently become blood clots, and it has been proven that Aspirin reduces the risk of developing the disease by almost half. Regularly taking the drug is recommended for those people who have already experienced thrombosis, as well as those who have cardiovascular diseases, such as varicose veins.
For enhanced prevention, the doctor may prescribe anticoagulants - medications designed specifically to thin the blood. For example, patients are often prescribed Heparin, Sincumar, Phenilin, Warfarin, etc. All anticoagulants are dispensed from pharmacies with a prescription, and the doctor determines the exact dosage and duration of the treatment course. Typically, the time of admission is no more than 6 weeks.
For a prescription you need to contact a phlebologist or vascular surgeon. The doctor will analyze the medical history, conduct an examination and prescribe a suitable medication for prevention.
In addition to tablets, as a prophylaxis, funds for external use are used - ointments, creams and gels. Such drugs can act in several ways - to strengthen the walls of blood vessels, improve blood circulation, relieve swelling, etc. Most often, Venolife, Lyoton, Heparin ointment and Balsamic liniment (according to Vishnevsky) are used as such funds. For the prevention of thrombosis, the selected drug should be used daily.
To reduce the risk of developing the disease, you need to adjust your diet, and it is better to go on a special diet. It is aimed not at weight loss, but at the use of products that contribute to the normalization of blood circulation. However, if the patient is overweight, he needs to consult a nutritionist to create a suitable diet for both weight loss and thrombosis prophylaxis.
The menu should be varied, it should include more fresh fruits and vegetables, cereals, low-fat varieties of meat, milk and sour-milk products. It’s important to eat cholesterol-lowering foods. It is advisable to season food with vegetable oils with the addition of grated garlic or ginger.
The following products should be completely eliminated from use:
- margarine and butter,
- fatty meats such as pork,
- sausages and sausages,
- hard cheeses
- fast food,
- carbonated drinks.
It is recommended to gradually introduce omega-3 fatty acids into the diet, for this you should consume more fish - sardines, tuna, mackerel, salmon, mullet, etc. You can also take fish oil in capsules and prepare seafood dishes - shrimp, squid, mussels .
You should also eat more foods with vitamin E - liver, nuts, broccoli, asparagus, legumes, sunflower seeds, etc. To avoid blood clots, you need to eat red grapes, grape juice and dry red wine are also useful (no more 100 ml per day).
Vitamin C useful for the body can be obtained from citrus fruits, melons, watermelon, blackcurrants, herbs, apples, pomegranates and other fruits and vegetables.
Thus, the diet for the prevention of thrombosis does not imply significant restrictions, you just need to make your diet healthy. It is necessary to refuse only from the most harmful products that harm any person. In this case, from the acceptable options, you can create a menu for each day, which will not be repeated, and at the same time the patient will not feel limited in something.
Most modern people lead a static lifestyle, since office work involves a constant stay in a sitting position, and on weekends many want to relax on the couch to relax after a hard week. All this negatively affects the whole organism as a whole and the circulatory system in particular: venous walls become inelastic, blood stagnates, especially in the lower extremities, and blood circulation slows down.
To prevent complications, you need to give your body the necessary loads. With concomitant diseases of the cardiovascular system, power sports are contraindicated, but you can always find a suitable activity for yourself.
Many women prefer yoga or Pilates, even dancing can bring the desired result if done regularly. Men prefer cycling and swimming in the pool. You can also choose exercises for daily exercise, which will stimulate the acceleration of blood circulation.
In the prone position, you can perform the exercises “Bicycle”, “Scissors” and “Birch” familiar to many from school, it is also useful to make swings and rotations with your feet. In the standing or sitting position, you can roll from heel to toe and vice versa, perform rotational movements of the feet. Sitting on a chair, you can press your knees to your chest and straighten your legs parallel to the floor.
Traditional medicine recipes
Looking for the answer to the question of how to avoid the formation of blood clots, you can turn to folk recipes. Alternative medicine can be used only if it is approved by the attending physician, since some recipes can harm the body in the presence of concomitant pathologies.
Most often, the following folk remedies are used:
- Cranberry berries must be washed and mixed with honey, it is necessary to use the resulting product, 2 teaspoons on an empty stomach and before bedtime. Cranberries can be frozen and take the necessary amount every day.
- In spring, you need to collect the mountain ash bark, rinse, dry and grind in any way. Pour 10 tbsp. l raw materials with a liter of cold water, bring to a boil over medium heat, then reduce it to a slow and cook the mixture for 2 hours. Cool the resulting broth, strain and consume 3 tablespoons three times a day.
- Grind dried mint, pour 2 tbsp. l a glass of boiling water, cover and let it brew for several hours. Strained broth to use in the morning on an empty stomach for 2-3 months, then take a break and repeat the course.
- To lower your blood cholesterol, use a few cloves of garlic every day.
In addition, any herb that improves blood circulation and strengthens the immune system can be added to tea, for example, hawthorn, sage, acacia, cinquefoil, lemon balm, etc. As a sweetener for tea, it is best to use natural liquid honey, since sugar consumption should be minimized.
If we talk about alternative medicine, then for the prevention of thrombosis, hirudotherapy can be used - treatment with medical leeches. However, when choosing this method, it is necessary to choose only a reliable clinic with an existing certificate for such activities.
Other preventive measures
Blood clot prophylaxis includes other methods, they can be combined in such a way as to choose the most suitable option for yourself. Most of these measures are aimed at adjusting the lifestyle that any person can do. Patients are advised to:
- Alternate the time of work and rest, for every hour spent in a static position, you need at least 5 minutes of warm-up.
- Daily walks in the fresh air for 30-60 minutes.
- Give preference to outdoor activities.
- Avoid infectious diseases - temper, consume more vitamins, limit contact with infected people.
- Completely or at least partially abandon bad habits.
- Wear compression underwear - stockings and socks, which can be purchased at the pharmacy, having previously determined the appropriate size with your doctor. There are both male and female models of underwear.
- Refuse to wear tight clothing and too high heels.
- Reduce your stay outside in too hot or too cold weather.
- Take a contrast shower, but the water should not be very hot and not very cold.
- During air travel or trips to cars or public transport, you need to do simple exercises - rotating your feet and rolling from toe to heel, this will help stretch your legs. It is also advisable to drink more fluids.
Preventing the disease is always easier than treating it later. If you carefully monitor your health, you can recognize alarming symptoms in time and take up prevention. It will be useful both for those who have not yet experienced thrombosis, and those who have already suffered this disease, in order to subsequently avoid relapses.
Healthy lifestyle as the main preventive measure
· To give up smoking. When inhaled tobacco smoke, resins penetrate through the walls of the lungs into the bloodstream and injure the vascular walls. The risk of thrombosis is significantly increased. If it is not possible to get rid of nicotine addiction yourself, seek the help of appropriate specialists.
· Rational diet. If you are overweight, there are guaranteed stagnation in the lower extremities in which the blood flow is disturbed. The slower it is, the higher the risk of blood clots. Weight control and moderate physical activity are essential measures against thrombosis.
· Active lifestyle. Daily physical activity is an integral part of a healthy lifestyle. Hiking, cycling, jogging - all this protects not only from thrombosis, but also from their provoking factors, including obesity. In patients with physical inactivity, the risk of vascular pathologies is almost doubled.
· Limit alcohol consumption. Alcohol, consumed on a regular basis, saturates the blood with toxic substances that have a destructive effect on the walls of blood vessels. The likelihood of thrombosis increases significantly.
· Blood pressure monitoring If you have problems with pressure, you should constantly monitor its level with a home blood pressure monitor. If there is a need to reduce it, seek the advice of a doctor - do not take measures for self-medication.
· Taking into account a family history. If there are diseases associated with abnormal coagulation in the next of kin, it is important to inform the observing specialist about this fact. Carefully monitor your health if you have a genetic predisposition to diabetes mellitus and other chronic diseases that cause vascular problems.
· Postoperative measures. As a result of any surgical intervention, the integrity of healthy tissues is impaired, which can affect the formation of blood clots. Consult your doctor in advance about the short-term use of anticoagulants and other protective measures in the process of postoperative rehabilitation.
· Rules of flights and transfers. In the case of constant flights and transfers (more than 4 hours on the way), monitor the normal position of the legs and try to consume more fluid - dehydration can thicken the blood, which is a favorable factor for the formation of blood clots and emboli.
· Refusal of COCs (combined oral contraceptives). If you have a hereditary tendency to thrombosis, or if they had a history, you need to refuse hormonal contraception. Pills taken to protect against unwanted pregnancy, in almost all cases, have a side effect in the form of a violation of blood coagulation and its thickening. This is especially true for smokers and women over 35 years old. Discuss alternative methods of contraception with your gynecologist.
Ask your vascular surgeon or phlebologist what measures to prevent thrombosis should be followed during pregnancy. Such recommendations are traditionally given in person, taking into account the course of gestation and related problems.
Ways to prevent thrombosis after surgery and injury
If you need surgery or have suffered a serious injury, the doctor should study your history in detail and decide on the methods of protection against thrombosis. The risk of deep vein thrombosis is associated with limited mobility after surgery and trauma. Usually, it increases immediately after the intervention and during the first 10 days after it, but can persist up to several months, especially with forced physical inactivity.
Practical studies show that the risk of thrombosis is significantly reduced when using regional (conduction) anesthesia. Therefore, modern specialists prefer it if there is an opportunity to circumvent the use of general anesthesia.
The list of postoperative and post-traumatic preventive measures also includes:
· Admission of anticoagulants (strictly prescribed)
Wearing elastic compression and bandage underwear,
· Elevated position of the legs in the process of rehabilitation,
· Early motor activity (as soon as possible),
· Painkillers to facilitate movement,
· Physiotherapy exercises under the supervision of an instructor.
Compression knitwear and other auxiliary means should be selected by a specialist, taking into account individual measurements.
Traveler thrombosis prophylaxis
The prevention of blood clots is also important for those who travel frequently. The risk in this case increases due to the predominance of a sitting position.
The following methods will help you protect yourself from blood clots:
1. Adjustment of body position during a sedentary move or flight,
2. Hourly stops for hiking while traveling by car,
3. Abundant drinking and prevention of dehydration (exclusion of alcohol and caffeine),
4. Wearing compression hosiery to prevent swelling,
5. Walking during transfers and stops on long flights,
6. Avoidance of wearing products that compress the lower leg (knee socks, tight socks, etc.).
In the presence of specific risks, phlebologists of our clinic can help you. Usually conservative treatment is taking certain medications and strict adherence to the regimen. Surgery is required for progressive deep vein thrombosis. The technique and extent of the intervention entirely depend on the location of the thrombus, the extent of the vascular lesion, and the severity of the pathology. Учитывается наличие сопутствующих заболеваний.
1. Сбалансированное питание
Диета – основа профилактики тромбообразования, рацион формируют таким образом, чтобы:
- prevent an increase or normalize the balance of lipids and carbohydrates (risk of atherosclerotic vascular damage and diabetic angiopathy),
- adjust the amount of salt in the daily diet (risk of fixing hypertension, increased blood flow due to vasospasm, blood clots due to damage to the vascular walls),
- introduce vitamins, bioflavonoids into the diet, which can improve metabolism, strengthen and restore the vascular walls.
|Recommended Products for Thrombosis Prevention||Recommended products to a minimum|
|Low-fat meat of rabbit, turkey, chicken, veal||Fatty meat and offal (liver, liver paste)|
|Fatty sea fish, seafood, river fish||Hard and soft fatty cheese|
|Vegetable oil (olive, linseed, sunflower)||Fatty dairy products (cream, sour cream, ice cream)|
|Low-fat fresh milk and non-fat sour-milk products (young cheese, cottage cheese, kefir, yogurt)||Butter, Combined Fats and Spreads (Margarine)|
|Porridge (except pearl barley and wheat), pasta of hard varieties||Smoked meats, sausages, dried and salted fish, canned food, fish caviar|
|Whole grain or bran bread||Chips, crackers, salted nuts, fast food|
|Vegetables (except potatoes and sugar beets)||Alcohol, canned juices and nectars with pulp, sweet carbonated drinks|
|Legumes (peas, soybeans, beans, lentils, beans)||Sweets, confectionery, milk chocolate, syrups and pastry pastes|
|Fruits (except grapes and bananas)||Pastry, pasta, white bread|
|Nuts (almonds, pistachios, walnuts, peanuts)||Potatoes|
|Sugar-free fresh juices, green tea, cocoa||Fatty sauces (mayonnaise) and ready-made seasonings with added salt|
In a properly designed diet for the prevention of blood clots in blood vessels:
- the daily amount of salt is not more than 6 grams,
- 1/3 of animal protein (fish, meat, eggs) accounts for 2/3 of vegetable (legumes) and fiber (vegetables, fruits).
Vitamins improve metabolism, are necessary for cell division and normal functioning. They accelerate the process of regeneration of cell membranes, reduce the influence of various negative factors (nicotine), and reduce the sensitivity of the vascular walls. They prevent damage to the vascular walls by atherosclerotic plaques and the appearance of blood clots.
What vitamins are necessary for the prevention of thrombosis:
1. Vitamin C
Vitamin C - delays the oxidation of beneficial substances, thereby contributing to their absorption by cells, improves metabolism and regeneration of elastic muscle fibers of the vascular walls, increases the resistance of cells to negative factors (bacterial and viral toxins).
Foods High in Vitamin C:
- Greens (parsley, cilantro, spinach, green feather of garlic, onion).
- Vegetables - all types of cabbage (white cabbage, Brussels sprouts, red cabbage, kohlrabi), tomatoes, garlic, onions.
- Citrus fruits (lemons, grapefruits, oranges).
- Berries (sea buckthorn, black currant, rosehip).
2. Vitamin E
This vitamin is used to prevent atherosclerosis and thrombosis, it:
- activates the process of cellular respiration,
- promotes the regeneration of cell membranes,
- regulates the content of atherogenic lipids (cholesterol, from which a plaque forms in the vascular wall),
- improves blood properties (dilutes),
- delays the oxidation of beneficial substances and enhances cellular metabolism (metabolism).
Foods High in Vitamin E:
- Fatty sea fish.
- Legumes (soybeans, peas, beans, beans).
- Porridge (oatmeal, buckwheat, rice).
- Sprouts (wheat, other crops).
- Greens (celery, spinach, parsley).
- Vegetables (white and Brussels sprouts, tomatoes, onions and green onions).
- Fruits (oranges).
- Nuts (almonds, hazelnuts, peanuts, walnuts).
3. Vitamin A
Vitamin A (retinol, provitamin A) - improves metabolism, has an antioxidant property (delays the oxidation of beneficial substances), is necessary for the normal formation of the epithelium of the vascular walls, improves the rheological quality of the blood (dilutes), and prevents thrombosis.
Products with a high content of vitamin A (retinol, provitamin A):
- Greens (spinach, celery, parsley).
- Vegetables (tomatoes, red bell pepper).
- Berries (chokeberry, rose hip, pumpkin).
- Fruits (apricots).
- Fatty sea fish.
4. Vitamin B3 (rutin)
Reduces the permeability and sensitivity of the vascular walls, strengthens them and prevents thrombosis, atherosclerotic vascular damage. Vitamin properties are enhanced in the presence of ascorbic acid (vitamin C).
Foods High in Rutin (Vitamin B3):
- Greens (spinach, sorrel).
- Vegetables (tomatoes, garlic, bell pepper, cabbage).
- Citrus fruits (lemons).
- Porridge (green buckwheat).
- Berries (aronia, rosehip).
- Nuts (walnuts, hazelnuts, cashews, almonds, pistachios).
Bioflavonoids are plant substances that contribute to the rapid restoration and healing of vascular walls. As powerful antioxidants, they improve metabolism and increase the ability of cells to regenerate, prevent the formation of blood clots and thrombosis.
What bioflavonoids are necessary for the prevention of thrombosis:
Quercetin - improves metabolism, stimulates the restoration of vascular epithelial cells, has anti-inflammatory properties, reduces the sensitivity and permeability of the vascular walls, and prevents atherosclerotic vascular damage and thrombosis.
Products High in Quercetin:
- Vegetables (red and white onions, green peppers, broccoli).
- Greens (romaine lettuce, spinach, bean seedlings).
- Berries (cranberries, blueberries, elderberries).
- Fruits (red apples, pears).
- Dry red wine (not more than 70 ml per day).
Hesperidin is a bioflavonoid contained in large quantities in citrus fruits (lemons, oranges), it is able to restore the tone of small capillaries and blood vessels, helps reduce spasm of the vascular walls and blood flow, preventing the formation of blood clots.
For the successful prevention of thrombosis and thrombosis, these products need to be included in the daily diet, not necessarily together - you can alternate and combine the most affordable.
2. Drinking mode
Proper prevention of thrombosis is a mandatory drinking regimen, daily restoration of the optimal amount of fluid in the body.
An increase in blood viscosity enhances the ability of red blood cells to aggregate (stick together) right in the bloodstream and slows down the speed of blood flow. Under such conditions, any minor damage to the vascular wall from the inside becomes the place where they actively adhere, forming a blood clot.
Blood viscosity increases due to increased sweating (during heat, thermal procedures, temperature reaction to bacterial intoxication), with increased urine output (taking diuretics), some diseases (diabetes mellitus, anemia).
To prevent thrombosis and thrombosis, it is necessary to regulate the drinking regime, clean water effectively and quickly dilutes the blood. The daily norm for an adult and a healthy person is from 1.5 to 2.5 liters per day (depending on the season, you need to drink more in the heat). This amount does not include soups, teas or coffee.
3. The fight against obesity
To prevent thrombosis and thrombosis, it is recommended to get rid of obesity slowly, using a low-cholesterol or low-carb diet (or combining them):
- Eat small meals, but often (up to 6-7 times a day).
- The basic principle of heat treatment is steaming or baking.
- Vegetables and fruits should make up at least a third of the total diet.
- Limit the daily intake of salt (up to 5-6 grams per day).
- Observe the daily routine (breakfast, lunch, dinner on schedule).
In overweight people, the risk of atherosclerotic lesions of the vascular walls, the development of diabetes and hypertension increases exactly 10 times (these diseases are included in the list of pathologies that damage blood vessels and contribute to thrombosis).
Body Mass Index (BMI) Obesity
4. Bad habits
Nicotine resins and alcohol toxin affect the epithelium of the vascular walls, increasing their sensitivity and permeability to atherogenic lipids, increase the viscosity and aggregation of cellular blood elements (platelets and red blood cells).
Against the background of smoking and drinking alcohol, the risk of atherosclerosis and thrombosis increases 3-4 times, so getting rid of bad habits is included in the mandatory program for the prevention of thrombosis.
The content of harmful substances in a cigarette
5. Elimination of physical inactivity
A decrease in muscle activity, or lack of exercise, slows down cellular metabolism and contributes to the emergence of numerous congestive events (venous insufficiency) and diseases associated with metabolic disorders (for example, obesity).
For the prevention of thrombosis and thrombosis recommend:
- regular exercises in therapeutic gymnastics,
- water procedures (swimming, therapeutic exercises in the pool),
- yoga, cycling, hiking in the fresh air.
During sedentary work, it is necessary to take short breaks during which a simple warm-up is performed.
- roll from heel to toe several times,
- to tiptoe
- raise and lower your knees from a standing or sitting position,
- knock heels on the floor.
Prevention of thrombosis and thrombosis is an effective set of measures that in 85% of cases can prevent the formation of blood clots. Gradual weight loss, smoking cessation and the elimination of physical inactivity reduce the risk of:
- The appearance of myocardial infarction (70%).
- The development of cardiovascular failure (85%).
To consolidate the positive effect, it takes time (2–4 years), to maintain the result of the rules for the prevention of thrombosis, you need to adhere to throughout life.