When the horses are kept stable, they spend most of the time indoors, but go on a walk. This method is suitable for a small number of goals when there are no fields nearby.
With herd keeping, animals constantly live on pastures, in close to wild conditions. The herd is hiding from the weather in natural shelters, grottoes and caves, under portable or stationary canopies.
In cold latitudes they use the stables-pasture method. In winter, horses are looked after in heated rooms. In the warm season, when the grass appears, they are released into the pastures.
There are various systems and methods for keeping horses:
- herd-pasture system.
Breeders choose the right option, taking into account the local climate. The first method involves keeping animals in conditions as close to natural as possible. At the same time, individuals are constantly on pastures, as in the wild.
When stables are kept, animals stay indoors, but have the opportunity to go for a walk. The last option is stable and grazing, suitable for terrain with cold winters. In the warmer months, horses spend most of their time in the pasture, and in the fall they are transferred to the stable.
There are 2 methods of herd keeping:
- Superior herd. In this case, all members of the herd, regardless of gender and age, are kept together. During bad weather, portable structures with awnings are used to protect pregnant females, foals and producers. The remaining members of the herd are hiding in natural shelters.
- Cultural. Animals are divided into groups by sex and age. For shelter from the weather, they use stationary reliable structures with awnings, and for especially vulnerable groups, equipped stables are created where the horses stay during a cold snap.
Stable and cleanliness
A room for horses is built on a hill where groundwater lies at a depth of at least 1 meter. Having placed the stable in a lowland, the owner of the horse will expose him to illness due to constant dampness. In winter, the temperature inside should be maintained within 7-10 degrees of heat.
The stall is the place where the horse rests. Each individual is allocated about 12-14 square meters. m of free space. The compartments are divided by partitions. The height of the room is not less than 2.8 m. The floor is made under a slight slope of clay, wood or concrete. Its surface is covered with straw or sawdust. There should not be thresholds and sharp corners inside, otherwise the animals will be injured.
Attention! The stalls are equipped with windows, as poor lighting affects the animal's health and reproductive function.
A feeder is placed near one of the walls. Many breeders use a trough - it is roomy and comfortable. The tank is divided by a partition into 2 compartments - for hay and concentrates. The nursery is equipped with a grill. A drinker should be nearby. Horses drink a lot - 40-60 liters per day. It is important to monitor the purity of the water.
Having equipped the stable, you should figure out what and how to properly feed the horse. The daily diet of horses includes:
- oats - 5-6 kg,
- hay (meadow and bean-cereal) - 7 kg,
- bran - 1.5 kg
- carrots - 5-6 kg,
Attention! The horse should receive salt daily. A lick briquette is fixed next to the feeder. The animal independently licks as much salt as needed.
The horse may become ill due to poor feed. It is important to check for mold and prevent rotten vegetables from feeding. Hay is distributed 4 or 5 times a day, and concentrated feed - three times a day. Before each meal, animals are watered.
Hay for horses
The transition to grazing is carried out gradually. A sharp change in diet leads to digestive disorders. Horses often develop colic due to eating large amounts of clover and alfalfa. It is important to avoid pastures where many legumes grow.
When the horses work, you need to give them the opportunity to relax. This is done every 2-3 hours. During the break, the horses are given a bite to eat. If the rest is short - up to half an hour, they offer a little oats, in other cases they are fed first with hay, and then with concentrates. After eating, pets are brought to work no earlier than an hour later.
For daily horse care you will need a special equipment:
- Whalebone brush. It is used to clean the extremities of dry contaminants - soil residues and litter.
- Soft bristle brush. They cleanse the body, neck, mane and tail.
- Skrebnitsy. They are designed to remove dust from the brushes.
- A tool made of plastic or metal, a scraper, is used to remove moisture from the body.
- Combs. With their help, tidy the hair in the mane and tail.
- Sponges of different colors to remove contamination in the eye and croup.
- Hooks and brushes for cleaning hooves.
- Mittens, cloth. With their help, wipe the wool.
Horse cleaning should begin with the most unpolluted parts of the body - from the head and neck, gradually moving down. Take the brush in the right hand. First, it is carried out against hair growth, and then make several movements in the opposite direction. As necessary, the inventory is cleaned with a scraper, which is convenient to hold in the other hand.
Attention! Heavily contaminated areas are pre-moistened with warm water, then gently rubbed with straw plaits. After the procedure, residual moisture is removed with a scraper.
After horseback riding or intense work, it is important to inspect the hooves. Clean them with hooks. The arrow area is treated with a special brush. At the final stage of cleaning, the pet's body is wiped with dry cloth or suede.
Horses are bathed only in the warm season, when the air temperature reaches +20 degrees. If there is a small body of water nearby, you can wash your horse there. Otherwise use a hose. Bathing is carried out every 10-14 days.
What animals wash:
- special cleaning products for horses,
- baby shampoo
- plain water.
Attention! Veterinarians do not recommend using soap for horse bathing, as it dries the skin.
First, the coat is abundantly moistened with warm water, then shampoo is applied, distributing the foam throughout the body. Detergent is washed off thoroughly. Using water stripping, moisture is removed from the coat. At the final stage, the animal’s body is wiped dry with a cloth. After swimming, horses are given drink and hay.
A mane is a decoration of a horse. It requires careful care. It is washed as it gets dirty - in some individuals the hair is greasy quickly, in others they stay clean longer. To wash the mane and tail use a special shampoo and conditioner.
The procedure itself is no different from washing a person’s hair. It is important to ensure that the product does not get into the eyes. After washing, the hair is combed and allowed to dry. If necessary, the mane is braided. There are several interesting hairstyles for horses:
- hunting braids
- continental braids.
Attention! Sometimes horses bite each other's mane. To avoid this, repellent aerosols are used.
Horse hooves are inspected daily after training or hard work. To relieve fatigue, the animal’s legs are watered with cool water, cleaned, and then greased with fat-containing agents. From the hooves, dried manure, pebbles and soil residues must be removed by hook, being careful not to touch the arrow so as not to damage it. This area is brushed.
Attention! The overgrown stratum corneum is removed with a frequency of once every 1-1.5 months.
If the steed regularly works on hard ground, he is shod. It is better to entrust the procedure to a specialist. He will not only correctly choose the size of the horseshoes, but also will not harm the pet.
Horse Health Care
In the absence of proper care, the horse may become ill. These animals, like people, suffer from various ailments:
- digestive diseases, etc.
Vet examination by horse
The most dangerous infections for horses are anthrax, glanders, leptospirosis, tuberculosis, tetanus, and rabies. They quickly spread from one individual to another and can lead to death of livestock. To protect your pets, it is important to get vaccinated in a timely manner. There are vaccines against skin diseases. They protect animals from different types of dermatomycoses.
It is important to regularly carry out the prevention of helminthiases. This is usually done twice a year - in spring and autumn. Do not neglect veterinary research for incidental horse disease, as well as regularly check the condition of the teeth of horses.
Noble animals require respect for themselves. They can not be shouted and even more so beat. Horses are rather shy, so before entering the stable you should first call a horse, draw his attention, and then approach him. Prohibited:
- walk around the horse from behind or crawl under its belly while in the stall,
- bring fingers to the pet’s mouth,
- release the reins from the hands, leading the horse out of the stable,
- go to the right of the horse
- saddle a horse, revealing wounds, abrasions, bumps on the body,
- pull the bridle and show rudeness.
Attention! Horses do not tolerate the smell of alcohol. Do not get close to them after drinking alcohol.
Caring for a horse is not easy. This is a great responsibility and work. When you want to buy a horse, you need to understand that its contents will not only entail serious material costs, but also require a lot of time.
Feeding and drinking
Yes, you need to be able to feed the horse. The same applies to drinking - you need to know the peculiarities of the structure and physiology of the horse’s organism, otherwise one untimely diet will lead to the death of the animal or leave it crippled for life.
Horse feeding must take into account the body's need for all the necessary substances and trace elements, vitamins are especially important. Rations change, taking into account the time of year, working conditions, age and gender of the horse, a lot of factors are taken into account. You can’t overfeed the horse with grain, the walls of her stomach can tear, and the fodder masses fall into the abdominal cavity, causing painful death. But constant underfeeding threatens the loss of mass and health of the animal, chronic diseases and exhaustion.
First of all, the horse is a herbivore and only a herbivore! No sausages, pies, salads! This threatens the digestion of the pet, causing great digestive upsets. For the gastrointestinal tract to work properly, they need to consume large amounts of grass or hay, cereals (oats, barley) and vegetables. It’s easy to find out all the rules yourself, given the size, age and weight of your pet. With free grazing without work, the horse usually grabs the grass eaten during the day.
Watering is another story. Horses are fed twice a day, in the morning and in the evening with running, but not ice water, never drink a horse heated after training or hard work, it is worth waiting about an hour. If the horse drinks too eagerly, grabbing air, there is a simple secret - pour a bunch of hay in a bucket of water on top, and the horse will calm down.
For any type of horse maintenance, shelter is provided in the form of a barn, or a large stable with individual stalls, where the horse is saved from rain and snow, and from any weather.
Horse Care herd content on this ends. But most often the horses used for work or in sports are kept singly or several heads each, and therefore several more mandatory techniques are added to the care and hygiene of the animal.
A horse needs 40-60 liters of water per day. Drinking regimen depends on loads and season. If the horse is grazing, it is watered twice a day in the morning and in the evening, in winter - before each feeding. With great physical exertion, they are drunk an hour after training or work. The water is given clean, flowing, without impurities and odor. Caring for horses is facilitated by car drinkers.
Horse cleaning and bathing, hoof care
Cleaning includes hygienic treatment of the skin and hair from dirt and dandruff with a brush and scraper. The fact is that in nature the horse is cleaned with the help of wallowing in the sand and dust, and when they are kept stable and when working in carts, they are deprived of this pleasure. A person has to take responsibility for the condition of the appearance of the horse.
The cleaning begins on the left from the head, then the shoulders, withers, back and limbs, then move to the other side. During this procedure, the owner or athlete has a great opportunity to check with his hands the condition of the skin and coat, to notice wounds, injuries or skin parasites in time. In addition, this is a great opportunity to chat with the animal, whisper in his ear how wonderful and wonderful he is, and also an invaluable helper and breadwinner in the family.
Horse bathing is carried out only in summer and in good weather, in addition, it is necessary to take into account her desire. If a horse is panicky afraid of water, then do not force it into an open reservoir forcibly in order to avoid injuries. You can try to wash your pet out of the hose, first without pressure, with warm water, at the same time you can use special shampoos. You can not wash the horse heated after training, it is necessary to allow it to dry on its own, and then rinse. Also, washing in the cold season is not recommended, this threatens colds.
The owner is also responsible for the condition of the hooves. When working on the ground in the sole of the hooves stones can get stuck that the horse is not able to get rid of on his own, the “athletes” clog manure and straw in the arrow, causing rotting. Hoof cleaning is easy enough - the owner bends the horse's limbs and with a special hook cleans the arrows from stones and debris. At the same time, you can evaluate the shape of the hoof, damage, change. It is not worth cutting an ungulate horn yourself, it is better to provide it to a specialist. If you engage in hooves daily, then very soon the animal gets used to this small procedure, and even independently exposes its legs for inspection.
Horseshoe and veterinary treatments
Shoeing horses is required during heavy work on hard ground, with slippery ground, with various diseases of the hooves, to maintain their shape and performance of the horse. It must be remembered that the horse is, first of all, healthy hooves and legs, if you remove one of these components, then the horse will not be.
Forging horses is made only by blacksmiths, by special technologies and lines of the horns of the hooves, one should not learn such a tricky profession on one’s own pet, otherwise one can “multiply” the pet for a long time or for good. The blacksmith will correctly clear the hoof, give it a working form, explain the features characteristic of this particular horse. Sometimes you can do a simple cleaning, without shoeing, but such a procedure must be performed at least 3-4 times a year.
The veterinary treatments necessary for the pet will be explained at the nearest veterinary station, why they are needed and when it is best to produce them. It is better to be aware so as not to be at the wrong time before the fact of the absence of any important vaccination.