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What to do in order not to get tuberculosis

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Tuberculosis is the oldest infectious disease known since the time of the Egyptian pyramids. Today in the world every 4 seconds someone gets sick with tuberculosis, every 10 seconds someone dies of tuberculosis, 1% of the world's population gets infected with tuberculosis every year. Russia belongs to 22 countries of the world that bear the heaviest burden of tuberculosis.

The fight against tuberculosis in Russia has ceased to be the business of only doctors. It began to concern almost everyone and everyone. What do you need to know about tuberculosis?

The causative agent of the disease is mycobacterium tuberculosis (aka Koch's bacillus). Tuberculosis most often affects the lungs, but can also develop in other organs. It is contagious and very dangerous.

Mycobacterium tuberculosis is carried through the air by the smallest invisible droplets of sputum, which a sick person emits when coughing, sneezing, talking. When inhaled contaminated air, mycobacteria enter the body of a healthy person. Usually, when the pathogen enters the body once, the immune system copes with the infection, and the person remains healthy. But with constant contact (in the family, at work) with a person who secretes mycobacteria, the risk of infection increases significantly. One patient per year can infect 10 -15 people.

People with a weakened immune system are at greatest risk of contracting tuberculosis. Weakening of immunity is caused by malnutrition, poor living conditions, overwork, stress, alcohol abuse, smoking, drugs, chronic lung diseases, diabetes mellitus, peptic ulcer HIV / AIDS and other diseases.

Tuberculosis, as a rule, develops gradually, sometimes unnoticed by the patient: there is rapid fatigue and general weakness, loss of appetite, weight loss, increased sweating, a slight increase in body temperature, then cough with sputum, chest pain, shortness of breath with small physical exertion. If these signs of the disease are detected, you should immediately consult a doctor in the clinic at the place of residence or in a TB dispensary.

With timely detection and proper treatment, tuberculosis is curable today. Therefore, early detection of tuberculosis is given great importance. For this, it is enough for an adult to undergo a fluorine examination once every two years, and for a child from 1 year to 15 years, a tuberculin diagnostics (Mantoux reaction).

All healthy children in the hospital, as well as at the age of 7 and 14 years (with a negative result of the Mantoux test 2TE) are vaccinated against tuberculosis (BCG). The BCG vaccine creates immunity, increases the body's resistance to tuberculosis. When infected, vaccinated children either do not get tuberculosis at all, or it proceeds in a mild form.

You should always remember that early detection of tuberculosis is the key to recovery!

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You are prone to lung disease at an average level.

So far, it’s good, but if you don’t start taking care of it more carefully, then diseases of the lungs and other organs will not take long (if there were no prerequisites). And frequent colds, problems with the intestines and other "charms" of life and accompany weak immunity. You should think about your diet, minimize fatty, flour, sweet and alcohol. Eat more vegetables and fruits, dairy products. To nourish the body with the adoption of vitamins, do not forget that you need to drink a lot of water (namely purified, mineral). Harden the body, reduce the amount of stress in life, think more positively and your immune system will be strong for many more years.

Infection pathways

The possibility of infection with tuberculosis is quite high, but still the risk is low compared to such highly contagious diseases as HIV, viral hepatitis, measles, etc. The main source of infection in tuberculosis is a sick bacterial excretory.

Depending on the form of the tuberculosis process, patients may not secrete bacteria:

Form of the tuberculosis processBacteria containing material
PulmonarySputum
SkinThe contents of tuberculosis granulomas
IntestinesFeces
Genitourinary SystemUrine, genital discharge

With pulmonary forms, bacterial excretion requires the presence of destructive lesions in the lungs. Otherwise, destructive forms of tuberculosis were previously called "open".

So how can you get infected?

Tuberculosis transmission mechanisms:

Transmission mechanismBrief description: which way is dangerous
Aerogenic (about 90% of all cases)Infection occurs when the pathogen enters the mucous membrane of the human respiratory tract when inhaling the air in which mycobacteria is located. Most often, infection occurs by inhalation of a suspension of mycobacteria, which are located on the surface of dust particles (air-dust transmission mechanism), less often - when they enter the lungs of the MBT, excreted with sputum when coughing or sneezing (airborne transmission).

Contact (5-6%)Infection occurs through damaged skin and mucous membranes when a large amount of virulent mycobacteria gets on them (however, things are a rare source of infection). Alimentary (1-2%)When eating foods infected with mycobacteria: milk, meat, eggs (certain types of mycobacteria infect animals, for example, micobacteria bovis, which is the causative agent of cattle tuberculosis (bovis - lat. Bovine)

Vertical (1-2%)From mother to fetus.

Is it possible to get infected through a kiss?

Yes you can. Subject to contact with a patient who is a bacteriostatic and a large amount of the pathogen enters the damaged (cracks, cuts) mucosa. In this case, a tuberculous chancre is formed.

It is also possible to swallow mycobacteria and the development of the intestinal form of tuberculosis.

Where can I get tuberculosis?

Robert Koch said: “As long as there are slums on earth where the ray of sun does not penetrate, consumption will continue to exist.” Mycobacterium tuberculosis multiplies well in a moist, warm environment, unsatisfactory home conditions.

In a large crowd of people, indoors without adequate ventilation, mycobacteria feels great. Settling on the surface of objects and mixing with dust, it can be in a viable state for many weeks and months.

Is it possible to get infected on the street?

The probability of TBC infection on the street is quite small. Once in the environment, mycobacteria disperses in the air and dies very quickly under the influence of ultraviolet rays. Thus, in the open air the concentration of bacteria necessary for infection is reduced.

By acting on mycobacteria, ultraviolet rays “dry” it, reducing virulence. Those bacteria that do not die under the influence of ultraviolet rays are not pathogenic enough for infection. To get infected with tuberculosis, a direct amount of virulent bacteria must be allowed to enter the inhaled air.

If you walk on the street, you should avoid getting sputum of people who may be sick with tuberculosis directly into the inhaled air, and this will be enough.

But in public transport there are all conditions for infection:

  1. A large crowd of people.
  2. Poor ventilation.
  3. Humid warm air.

Therefore, you should be careful about coughing in public transport and remember that small aerosol particles (up to 5 microns in diameter) containing mycobacteria spread for several meters and remain in suspension for up to 1 hour.

What can infect TBC from?

In everyday life, the probability of TBC infection from a sick person is very high, since the mycobacteria secreted by them are in the air, can settle on food and household items, increasing the risk.

To avoid infection, you must follow these rules:

  1. A tuberculosis patient should have his own personal hygiene items, his own dishes.
  2. For the patient it is necessary to allocate a separate room.
  3. The room should be organized wet cleaning (at least twice a day) and airing. The windows should face the sunny side.

Patients who are bacteriostatic should undergo special treatment in a TB dispensary. This will protect others from infection and accelerate the recovery of the patient.

Risk groups

There are several groups of people who have a higher chance of infection:

  1. Persons in contact with patients.
  2. Persons with residual changes after tuberculosis.
  3. Patients with diabetes, pneumoconiosis, gastric ulcer and duodenum.
  4. Patients with immunodeficiency.
  5. Smokers.
  6. Persons in custody.
  7. Asocial groups.

In the video you can find answers to questions about tuberculosis:

Doctor: high risk.

It is also worth highlighting a special risk group: these are doctors and medical staff who regularly contact with patients with tuberculosis. To avoid the disease, it is necessary to use personal protective equipment, such as special respirators, goggles when performing manipulations associated with the risk of sputum entering unprotected mucous membranes and into the inhaled air.

An important component in the work is ... nutrition. If mycobacterium enters an empty stomach, it can invade the mucosa, thereby increasing the risk of developing the disease. When the MBT enters the stomach, in which there is content, the bacterium is simply digested in the digestive tract.

It is necessary to remember the hygienic treatment of hands and instruments after contact with patients with disinfectant solutions (see Disinfection for tuberculosis: what you need to know). The uniform in which the doctor works with patients should be handled and not used in contact with healthy people.

How to avoid infection?

First of all, people with reduced immunity are at risk of contracting tuberculosis, so a lot of attention should be paid to lifestyle and health issues. Particular importance should be given to proper nutrition, timely treatment of diseases, as well as immunization issues.

Vaccination promotes the development of immunity and reduces the risk of morbidity after primary infection.

  1. Tuberculin diagnostics: conducting a test with tuberculin allows you to detect the lack of immunity in children or an infection with mycobacteria that has already occurred.
  2. Diaskintest: allows you to clearly determine the presence of an active tuberculosis process in the body, based on the reaction of specific MBT proteins.
  3. Fluorography: conducting an annual preventive fluorographic study allows you to identify changes in the lungs characteristic of the tuberculosis process and to prevent the development of destructive forms of pathology with bacterial excretion.

The risk of contracting tuberculosis always exists. To avoid infection, it is necessary to lead a healthy lifestyle, eat right, seek medical help in a timely manner and follow the instructions of specialists. Be healthy!

Infectious - still does not mean ill

This information may surprise, but it is almost impossible to meet an adult who is not infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis - Koch's wand. Contact with this microorganism usually occurs in early childhood.

An insignificant number of Koch sticks gets into the respiratory tract of the child, inflammation occurs, the immune system copes with it and self-recovery occurs. There are no clinical manifestations, and if it were not for a positive Mantoux test in the future, they would not have been suspected of the presence of a tuberculosis bacterium in the body.

Such an infection can even be considered a favorable phenomenon for the body - due to it, tuberculosis immunity is formed.

This is how the BCG vaccine works, which until recently was given to all infants immediately after birth. Weakened mycobacterium tuberculosis was administered to the child, activating the immune defense.

Koch's sticks are in a dormant state in the body and can wake up only under favorable circumstances:

  • in direct contact with the patient in an open form,
  • in conditions of the body during which immunity drops sharply: in acute infectious diseases and exacerbations of chronic diseases,
  • from abuse of smoking, alcohol,
  • with malnutrition or prolonged malnutrition,
  • during prolonged stress.

The active form of tuberculosis is manifested only in 2-4% of all infected. Those people who have a positive Mantoux test, but do not have any changes in X-ray and sputum analysis, are not sick. They do not spread bacilli of tuberculosis and are not dangerous to others. Anyone who becomes infected with tuberculosis at an early age without clinical manifestations is not considered ill.

Opportunity for infection

The risk of infection with active strains of Koch bacillus arises constantly. It is impossible to give guarantees that in transport, on the street, in a public place only healthy people are surrounded. How to protect yourself from tuberculosis?

In most situations, it is enough to follow the usual preventive measures:

  • wash your hands after coming from the street, especially if you had to visit places where there is a large crowd of people,
  • try to stay healthy
  • do fluorography on time.

The risk of catching active tuberculosis will be minimized.

Do not get sick harder if you have to come into direct contact with patients with this terrible disease. But then again, you need to consider in what form the disease occurs and what kind of communication. When exchanging body fluids, the probability of a possible infection is higher.

Persons who come into direct contact must contact a TB doctor. Children under 15 years of age need to be examined 4 times a year, adults only 2 times. Sputum, urine and blood are taken for analysis, a tuberculin test is performed, an X-ray of the lungs is made. No need to be afraid of such an examination. Nobody will carry out chemoprophylaxis to a healthy person!

For those who have undergone a massive attack of aggressive strains of mycobacteria, anti-TB drugs are prescribed in the minimum dosage, which cannot damage the general condition of the body.

It is believed that pregnant women are most at risk of infection. The probability of contracting tuberculosis during pregnancy is exactly the same as without it. Even if infection has occurred, pregnancy is not interrupted, and active treatment begins after childbirth.

You can catch the infection without direct contact with patients, if you use objects belonging to them, or live in the room in which they lived. Koch sticks are able to remain active in a warm, humid environment for up to 5 months, in book dust for up to 3 months, in an apartment, even with regular ventilation, in the winter months - up to 25-38 days.

Measures to prevent infection - disinfection by the sanitary-epidemiological station. It is impossible to get rid of pathogenic bacilli on your own, having processed the apartment and made a major overhaul.

Tuberculosis Prevention

To prevent the development of the disease, you must adhere to the following rules.

  1. Do not refuse vaccinations, regularly conduct Mantoux tests for school-age children. Adults should monitor their health and do fluorography once a year.
  2. Eat and eat right. The menu must contain protein foods. If you have an active lifestyle, you can’t torture yourself with constant malnutrition, limit your diet, eat only foods of the same type.
  3. It is required to observe the regime of work and rest, abandon bad habits or reduce abuse to a minimum.
  4. Perform hygiene measures.
  5. Regularly carry out wet cleaning in the room, ventilate it.
  6. When you have to be with a patient with tuberculosis, you should definitely take protective measures: wear masks and gloves.

There should be no false shame. TB doctors are very rarely ill, although they are constantly in contact with patients. They observe safety precautions.

If there is a suspicion that the patient with tuberculosis has visited the apartment, it is advisable to treat it with a quartz lamp. Ultraviolet microbacilli of tuberculosis die within 3 minutes. There is no quartz lamp - the room should be ventilated, disinfected with chlorine-based products and not enter for 5 hours.

Knowing how not to get sick with tuberculosis, the possibility of infection can be minimized.

But if warning signs appear:

  • the temperature is constantly kept at about 37.2ºС,
  • weakness is felt, I constantly want to sleep,
  • the lymph nodes are enlarged,
  • weight began to decline for no reason.

And this condition lasts for more than 2 weeks, you must definitely sign up for an unscheduled consultation with a TB doctor.

Modern medicine successfully fights tuberculosis.

When contacting a doctor at the initial stage of tuberculosis, the development of the disease can be stopped.

Congratulations! Keep it up!

Вы заботитесь о своем питании, здоровье и иммунной системе. Keep up the good work and problems with your lungs and health in general will not bother you for years to come. Do not forget that this is mainly due to the fact that you eat right and lead a healthy lifestyle. Eat the right and wholesome food (fruits, vegetables, dairy products), do not forget to use a large amount of purified water, temper your body, think positively. Just love yourself and your body, take care of it and it will certainly reciprocate.

In the yard spring, snow melted, winter is gone, but the infection remains. Usually, tuberculosis is especially active at this time. Many are sure that they get sick somewhere "at the bottom", outside the normal life. Alas, this error is the main and not the only one.

Tuberculosis - a very complex and dangerous infectious disease caused by mycobacteria (Koch sticks), the danger of which, unfortunately, has been underestimated for a long time. At the moment, there is a surge in the spread of this disease.

Most often, the infection affects the lungs, although it can also affect other organs. Nowadays, no one is guaranteed against infection, neither the rich nor the poor. There are countless places where you can get infected with tuberculosis - in transport, on the street, in a store, even in a fashionable resort.

The disease is extremely difficult, because the infected person may not even be aware of his problem and at the same time spread the infection to others. It is important not only to know how the symptoms of tuberculosis manifest, but also how not to get infected in contact with a patient with tuberculosis.

Routes of infection with tuberculosis can be very different:

  • Airborne drip is the most common route of infection. A patient with an open form of tuberculosis during a cough spreads a huge number of bacteria with tiny droplets of sputum.
  • Infection in the room where the patient is. Moisture particles released by cough dry out and turn into dust. The viability of Koch sticks in such conditions can last for a very long time.
  • Contact contamination when using the patient’s clothes, books, toys, dishes, while caring for a sick animal. With this infection, the mucous membranes and the skin are affected.
  • Foodborne infection when meat and milk from infected animals are used. Such infection leads to tuberculosis of the abdominal organs.
  • Intrauterine - transmission of infection from mother to child.

Speaking about whether it is easy to contract tuberculosis, it should be noted that 2 factors contribute to the onset of the disease:

1. The number of bacteria that enter the human body. It depends on the presence of contact with a patient with active tuberculosis.

2. Inhibition of the body's defenses, which is facilitated by:

  • poor nutrition
  • the use of products with GMOs, smoking, alcohol, drugs, long-term use of various medications
  • chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus, ulcers, respiratory diseases
  • prolonged stress

How to protect yourself from infection:

  • Mandatory vaccination of children aged 3-7 days with BCG vaccine with re-vaccination at 7 years
  • Children under 17 years old should do Mantoux tests annually. Children over 15 years of age and adults must do fluorography every year.
  • It is necessary to eat quality and regular. The menu every day should include 100-150 grams of protein food - meat or fish.
  • To lead a healthy lifestyle - properly regulate work and rest, refrain from smoking, alcohol abuse, exercise, more often to be in the fresh air.
  • Regularly do wet cleaning in rooms and ventilate them.
  • If symptoms occur - dry cough for more than two weeks, fever, weight loss, fatigue - you should consult a doctor immediately.
  • In the case of visiting your home sick, treat the apartment with ultraviolet radiation, which kills the Koch sticks for 2-3 minutes. You can treat the room with chlorine-containing drugs, but in this case, the bacteria will die only after 3-5 hours.
  • If a family member is diagnosed with tuberculosis, the methods of infection can be very different. Therefore, contact of young children with the patient should be excluded, try to isolate the patient as much as possible and make sure that all his things, bedding and plates are thoroughly disinfected. Patients with an open form of tuberculosis are subject to mandatory hospitalization.
  • If you take all these measures, the likelihood of contracting tuberculosis will not be great. Remember that in our time, tuberculosis is not a sentence. If the disease is diagnosed in the early stages, tuberculosis is treated quite easily.

There are special examinations specific to the detection of tuberculosis: in children, this is a reaction to tuberculin - a Mantoux test, in people at risk - a diaskintest (a similar but more sensitive test), a universal option for adults is fluorography, which is usually done once a year.

Performed by a nurse at the polyclinic GUZ "Petrovsk - Zabaykalsky Central District Hospital" Bezborodova T.V., 2015

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Now almost everyone knows how complicated the situation is with the incidence of tuberculosis in the countries of the former Soviet Union. Poor health care funding, insufficient vaccination coverage, poor ecology, deteriorating living conditions, bad habits - all these factors contribute to a decrease in immunity, the formation of resistant bacteria that cannot be treated with standard regimens, which leads to an increase in the incidence and complication of the fight against tuberculosis .

The most important issue that concerns any person is the risk of infection in everyday life. How not to get sick? - let's figure it out.

The possibility of infection with tuberculosis is quite high, but still the risk is low compared to such highly contagious diseases as HIV, viral hepatitis, measles, etc. The main source of infection in tuberculosis is a sick bacterial excretory.

Depending on the form of the tuberculosis process, patients may not secrete bacteria:

With pulmonary forms, bacterial excretion requires the presence of destructive lesions in the lungs. Otherwise, destructive forms of tuberculosis were previously called "open".

Who can get tubercle bacillus?

Mycobacteria that cause tuberculosis are widespread - this creates favorable conditions for infection of many people. However, infection in the human body is not yet considered a disease. Human immunity from birth is designed for serious attacks of dangerous bacteria and viruses - Koch's wand, causing the development of tuberculosis is no exception. To overcome it, immunity should make a lot of effort, but in most cases it succeeds.

Often, lung damage by mycobacteria provokes:

  • oncological pathologies,
  • constant stress
  • impaired metabolism,
  • advanced diseases of the internal organs,
  • alcohol intake and drug use.

Most often in our time, patients have pulmonary tuberculosis. If you carefully consider the moment how the infection occurs, it is important to know that the main reason for this is contact with the patient. Medical studies show that for infection from a patient with tuberculosis, you need to constantly contact him for six months. The same effect can be achieved if you are constantly with the patient in the room for 2 months.

A single contact with an infected person makes the probability of bacteria penetration to a minimum.

If the person’s immunity is good, then tuberculin sticks do not cause an open form of the disease, since they are immediately destroyed by the protective cells of the body. The surviving harmful bacteria remain in the body without causing any harm to it, since they are inactive. However, even with a minimal decrease in immunity, these microorganisms begin their active reproduction, which leads to the development of an open form of pulmonary tuberculosis. A virus that enters their cavity causes quite serious lung damage.

There are some groups of people who are most susceptible to infection by the open form. A patient with lung infection always spreads a lot of bacteria into the environment that are inhaled by healthy people. This can explain the constant infection of people with Koch's bacillus, which quickly multiplies in the body, affecting the lung cavity.

Most often, you can get sick with tuberculosis in places such as:

  • soldiers’ barracks
  • hospital ward where tuberculosis is treated,
  • the apartment or house where the patient lives with pneumonia,
  • school or kindergarten, especially if people with an open form of pneumonia work there,
  • a prison cell where people spend time in almost unventilated rooms.

The highest risk of infection with open form exists in the following groups:

  • Children - the immunity of babies is imperfect, therefore it is susceptible to attacks of various bacteria. Also, the risk of infection appears as a result of improper hygiene.
  • Pregnant women - strong hormonal changes in the body significantly weaken the female body, which greatly increases the likelihood of infection.
  • People who have HIV.

  • Older women and men.
  • People with weakened immunity.
  • People living in adverse conditions, damp and cold rooms.
  • Patients with diabetes.
  • People taking steroids.
  • People who eat poorly.
  • People experiencing frequent hypothermia.
  • People who abuse drugs and alcohol.

Methods of infection and symptoms of tuberculosis

The question of whether it is possible to become infected with tuberculosis is of interest to many. Previously, it was believed that only poor people had the chance of infection with a Koch wand. But this is not at all true and today almost everyone has a risk of pneumonia.

There are quite a few places where you can "pick it up": on the street, in the house, in the store, in the hospital, in public transport, in the resort.

But in addition to different places where infection is possible, there are also various ways of infection to enter the body:

  1. Airborne. This is the most common method of infection, in which a sick person contacts an open form of tuberculosis with healthy people. With this contact, a sick person spreads a lot of bacteria in the air that can infect people for several days.
  2. Contact. Infection through household items is also a fairly common method of transmitting harmful bacteria from a sick person to a healthy one. If a patient with an open form of tuberculosis has had long contact with “infected” objects, he can quickly “catch” the infection. Mycobacteria infection most often occurs through the mucous membranes and pores of the skin, in contact with certain objects that the patient used. An increased risk of infection occurs with damage to the skin, if a person makes contact with household items.
  3. Food. Sometimes you can become infected with tuberculosis with the constant use of milk or undercooked meat.
  4. Non-contact. Even if there is no direct contact with a sick person, you can get infected in the room where the patient lived with an open form of pathology. The fact is that in the air Koch’s wand has been “on alert” for a long time. In order to reduce the risk of infection, it is necessary to carry out sanitary and epidemiological treatment there before moving into a new room. This is necessary in order to prevent the risk of developing an infection, since it is not known which person lived here before and how he was sick. After disinfection, it is advisable to carry out repairs - only after that you can move into the apartment and live there.
  5. Intrauterine. This method is quite rare these days. During pregnancy, dangerous bacteria can be easily transmitted from an infected mother to her baby.

Recently, pulmonary tuberculosis most often occurs, which occurs in people with a weak immune system, as a result of which the body is not able to overcome the disease at the first stage of infection.

Most often, infection occurs in autumn and spring, when this disease is maximally activated, especially when in contact with a sick person.

The main symptoms of tuberculosis:

  • dyspnea,
  • sputum in cough,
  • headaches,
  • high not knocked down temperature,
  • mood swings and constant stresses,
  • severe weight loss
  • decreased performance.

At the initial stage of the disease, the patient most often has only 2-3 symptoms, and it is not necessary that the main one will be a cough. If the above symptoms occur, it is important to immediately contact a medical institution, and not conduct independent treatment.

Tuberculosis prevention

The main protection of the child from pathology is BCG vaccination. It contains mycobacteria, which can not provoke the development of the disease, but they are recognized by the body as hostile. As a result, the child develops immunity that protects it for 15 years.

Prevention measures that help prevent infection:

  • daily ventilation of the premises, as required by the sanitary services, especially if a patient infected with tuberculosis lived in it,
  • hygiene - you need to constantly wash your hands, especially for residents of large cities, where many bacilli carriers can live,
  • high-grade, and most importantly, healthy nutrition, which determines the general condition of the body,
  • daily wet cleaning with chlorine-containing products, especially if a patient with tuberculosis lived there, as a result of which the risk of developing the disease is reduced,

  • playing sports in order to maintain and strengthen immunity, thereby preventing infection,
  • you need to wear a protective mask when visiting a hospital or while working with a person who is sick with tuberculosis,
  • Before you start a conversation with a person who previously had an open form of tuberculosis, you need to make sure that he is completely healthy and underwent treatment, as a result of which the bacteria in the body have weakened.

When an infection with Koch's stick is detected, a measure of active prevention is treatment with chemotherapy drugs so that a person can live a full life without denying himself anything.

Observing all the above preventive measures, you can protect yourself and your loved ones from tuberculosis, because this disease is easier to prevent than to treat. And so that a person lives and does not think about the consequences of tuberculosis, it is recommended that preventive measures be taken.

Tuberculosis is a very complex and dangerous disease, the danger of which, unfortunately, has been underestimated for a long time. At the moment, there is a surge in the spread of this disease and the question of how not to get infected with tuberculosis is becoming especially relevant.

Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by microbacteria (coli sticks). Most often, the infection affects the lungs, although it can also affect other organs.

It has long been believed that tuberculosis is a disease of the poorest. However, in our time, no one is guaranteed against infection. There are countless places where you can get infected with tuberculosis - in transport, on the street, in a store, even in a fashionable resort.

Routes of infection with tuberculosis can be very different:

  • airborne droplet is the most common route of infection. A patient with an open form of tuberculosis during a cough spreads a huge number of bacteria with tiny droplets of sputum.
  • infection in the room where the patient is. Moisture particles released by cough dry out and turn into dust. The viability of the koch sticks under such conditions can last a very long time.
  • contact infection when using the patient’s clothes, books, toys, dishes, when caring for a sick animal. With this infection, the mucous membranes and the skin are affected.
  • foodborne infection when eating meat and milk from infected animals. Such infection leads to tuberculosis of the abdominal organs.
  • intrauterine - transmission of infection from mother to child.

Speaking about whether it is easy to contract tuberculosis, it should be noted that 2 factors contribute to the onset of the disease:

  • The number of bacteria that enter the human body. It depends on the presence of contact with a patient with active tuberculosis.
  • Oppression of the body's defenses, which is facilitated by:
  • poor nutrition
  • the use of GMO products, smoking, alcohol, drugs, long-term use of various medications
  • chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus, ulcers, respiratory diseases
  • prolonged stress

How to protect yourself from infection:

  • Mandatory vaccination of children aged 3-7 days with BCG vaccine with re-vaccination of 14 years
  • Children under 15 years of age should be sampled every year. Children over 15 years of age and adults must do fluorography every year.
  • It is necessary to eat quality and regular. The menu every day should include 100-150 grams of protein food - meat or fish.
  • To lead a healthy lifestyle - to properly regulate work and rest, abstain from smoking, alcohol abuse, exercise, more often to be in the fresh air.
  • Регулырно делать влажную уборку в помещениях и проветривать их.
  • If symptoms occur - dry cough for more than two weeks, fever, weight loss, fatigue - you should consult a doctor immediately.
  • In the case of visiting your home sick, treat the apartment with ultraviolet radiation, which kills the sticks of kokh within 2-3 minutes. You can treat the room with chlorine-containing drugs, but in this case, the bacteria will die only after 3-5 hours.
  • If a family member is diagnosed with tuberculosis, the methods of infection can be very different. Therefore, contact of young children with the patient should be excluded, try to isolate the patient as much as possible and make sure that all his things, bedding and plates are thoroughly disinfected. Patients with an open form of tuberculosis are subject to mandatory hospitalization.

If you take all these measures, the likelihood of contracting tuberculosis will not be great. Remember that in our time, tuberculosis is not a sentence. If the disease is diagnosed in the early stages, tuberculosis is treated quite easily.

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