First, let's determine what malt is, malt is a germinated grain of rye, barley, wheat, any grain that has the ability to transfer starch contained in the grain and other substances to a soluble state under the influence of enzymes that are already in the germinated grain called green malt.
In dry grain, all life processes are minimized to allow the grain to survive the winter and germinate in the spring, in order to activate the processes inside the grain
It must be moistened and placed in ideal conditions for germination. Why is it necessary to moisten the grain and begin to germinate.
When the grain is malted, fermentation processes take place in it, which determine its taste, color and color already malt.
So you can do the malt yourself. Malt for mash or beer, make malt from barley, make rye malt for making delicious homemade drinks.
The technology for producing malt is largely the same.
Soaking grain is carried out in an enameled bowl of a sufficiently large volume, soaking of different types of grain continues for different times, for example, soaking rye for 25-30 hours, and barley for 50-60 hours.
We remove the pop-up (empty) grain.
In the process of soaking every 10-12 hours, water must be changed in intervals, it is advisable to give the malt an hour to believe in the air, because oxygen is necessary to activate vital processes in the grain.
After the soaking process has come to an end, it is necessary to disinfect the grain for this we need a weak solution of potassium permanganate.
Just pour the resulting malt, the potassium permanganate solution, mix and merge the potassium permanganate back, the disinfection process has been completed.
After the end of all processes, the germination of disinfection of malt must be placed for germination in some plastic jar or an enameled container of small diameter so that the height of this container does not exceed 5 centimeters.
The duration of germination at room temperature is about 20 degrees for different grains will be different so rye will grow for about 3-4 days, and barley for 6-8 days, all this time it is necessary to spray the grain with water and mix about two to three times a day.
After the appearance of the roots, the grain needs to be germinated further until the length of the roots in rye reaches 1/3 of the grain length, and in barley, approximately 2 times more.
Fresh sprouted green malt can be stored for about two three days, then it will begin to mold and deteriorate. The taste of fresh malt sweet grain crunches a pleasant smell.
After preparing the malt, they can be prepared for use in storage. To do this, the malt needs to be dried at a temperature of not more than 50 degrees, pour a canvas bag and put into storage.
Such malt is stored. It can be long enough, in all formulations the weight of the malt is given based on the dry content.
What can you make malt from
The technological scheme for the production of malt or malting is quite simple, but requires the observance of certain conditions to save the maximum number of required enzymes. You can get malt at home from almost any grain. But practice has shown that it is best to use barley or rye for growing.
The use of corn also gives good results, but keep in mind that it is worth using exclusively white varieties to obtain high-quality raw materials. Yellow grains contain a large amount of oil, which can adversely affect the quality of corn malt.
Stages of making malt at home.
The preparation of malt lady does not differ, in terms of technology, from industrial preparation. The main stages of malt preparation include:
- Sprout removal
The first thing to do is prepare the water. To do this, it must be heated to 45-50 degrees, for this it is very convenient to use an electronic thermometer. In heated water, wash the barley. When washing, remove all debris, as well as floating grains. Any gardener will tell you why such grains should be removed, the reason is that they do not sprout, which means they have no value for us.
After washing and removing debris, the water drains and proceeds to the disinfection step.
For disinfection, it is necessary to prepare a solution of iodine or potassium permanganate. To do this, take 40 drops of iodine or potassium permanganate (at the tip of a knife) and dilute them in 10 liters of water. With the resulting solution, pour the washed grain and leave for 2-3 hours for disinfection.
This stage is very important, because in the process of germination harmful fungi can develop, such as black mold and all work will be in vain, so do not neglect disinfection in the production of malt at home.
After 2-3 hours, the disinfectant should be drained. Now you can proceed to the stage of soaking malt.
Technology and stages of production of malt at home
The whole process can be adjusted at home, no special equipment for the production of malt is required. It is enough to acquire a container of a suitable size (an ordinary bucket of 20 liters), a flat box in which barley will be germinated for malt, and simple drying equipment (a fan heater is quite suitable). With the help of these simple items, you can make rye, barley, wheat, corn malt with your own hands.
We select high-quality grain
The production of homemade malt should be carried out only with the use of quality raw materials. Otherwise, the yield of the required product will be small, that is, you will waste your time.
How to choose the right seeds for germination:
- Use barley or rye that was harvested 2 or more months ago, but remember, the total shelf life should not exceed 1 year
- A preliminary test for germination will not be superfluous. To do this, pre-soak 100 grains from different lots. The number of sprouts received will give you an average percentage of germination. Practice has shown that it is best to use rye and barley with an indicator of at least 90%
- If you are going to make corn malt, take the corn intended for food, you should refuse from feed grades, their quality is much worse
Before germinating the grain, it must be soaked in water at normal room temperature.
- We fill the prepared material into the container and fill it with ordinary water (temperature about 25-35 degrees). The liquid should cover the grain by at least 5-6 cm. Mix thoroughly and allow the bulk to settle.
- We remove floating grain from the surface (they will not germinate because they are empty) and other garbage, after which we drain the water.
- Re-fill the raw materials using cooler water (no more than 20 degrees). We repeat the operation of cleaning up unnecessary debris until the grain becomes clean without impurities.
- The next stage is disinfection. This stage is important, it is not recommended to refuse it, since even with the simplest processing, germinated barley will be more resistant to the effects of fungus, mold and pathogens. As an antiseptic, iodine or ordinary potassium permanganate is used (30 drops or 2-3 grams per 10 liters, respectively). The solution is poured into a container with grain and aged for 3 hours.
One of the secrets to making malt is to properly soak for a long time. The duration of this stage should be 36-48 hours. During this time, it is necessary to change the water every 6-12 hours and remove residual debris. This will completely clean the raw materials and start the processes required for successful germination.
At this stage you will learn how to make green malt at home, which can already be successfully used for moonshine, but we will do the full process of germinating barley to malt, any other grain can be sprouted using this technology.
- Soaked grain is spread on the bottom of a special tray or flat box, with a layer of no more than 5-6 cm.
- To maintain humidity, the surface is covered with a cotton cloth, which will not allow excess water to evaporate, but will not interfere with ventilation. For this purpose, you can apply a stretch film cut through every 10 cm, the disadvantage of this method is that it is impossible to provide access to the grain without removing the film.
- The process of germination should take place at a temperature of about 15 degrees and it is necessary to mix the grain every day.
- Under such conditions, rye will germinate in 4-5 days, and for barley it will take 6-7 days. The process is considered completed when the rye sprout has reached the size of the grain, and the barley sprout exceeds it by 1.5-2 times.
The resulting raw material is ready-made green malt, from which it is possible to make grain moonshine (for example, moonshine from sprouted wheat) or use it to saccharize grain or any other starch-containing raw materials. Remember that the viability of such malt is only 1-3 days, which confirms the desirability of further drying.
Malt drying and sprout removal
Dry malt is much better and longer stored, so it must be dried. In addition, by regulating and changing the drying phases (temperature and duration), you can get raw materials that give the alcoholic drink a unique taste and color. This is the advantage of dry malt over green.
In order not to destroy the enzymes obtained as a result of germination, at the first stage it is required to dry the malt at a temperature not exceeding 400 ° C. Previously, the whole process was carried out in natural conditions (attic, special canopies). But this method requires a long time. Therefore, to maintain the optimum temperature in the room and remove moisture, it is advisable to use a conventional fan heater.
After you have finished drying, you need to clean it of the remaining sprouts, after which it can be used.
- Place the already dried malt in a barrel of suitable volume. It all depends on the volume of raw materials.
- Take a construction mixer and mix the contents of the barrel thoroughly with it, thereby all the sprouts will separate from the grain, do this until all the sprouts fly off
- You need to check the grain in the wind or with a fan, just pouring the grain in the wind, light sprouts will fly off, and heavy grains will fall on the prepared surface
It should be noted that for the preparation of individual alcoholic drinks, for example, dark or caramel beer, you will need to use burnt or caramel malt. To obtain it, you will need additional frying or languishing at a certain temperature.
Perform all such processing in a conventional oven; below are exposure parameters to obtain varying degrees of caramelization.
- For dark Munich malt used in beer production, 2 hours exposure at a temperature of 110 degrees is required.
- Chocolate can be obtained by special frying (2000C) for an hour.
- Amber is also cooked for 1 hour, but at a temperature of 140 degrees.
The obtained malt can be used for the production of single-malt whiskey; for this, only malt is used without adding unmalted grain (see the recipe for mash from malt and the recipe for bread wine or Polugar) or use it to saccharify any other starch-containing raw materials: grain, flour, etc.
In order to ensure maximum saccharification of starch, never make mash using one type of grain. If you make moonshine from wheat, then you will need to use barley or rye malt and vice versa.
As you can see, making malt at home is not as difficult as it seems, although it takes a lot of time. Therefore, if you are interested in obtaining a quality alcoholic drink, try recipes using various types of malt, you will definitely like it.
Why do you need malt?
At its core, malt is a grain sprouted and prepared using special technology. Sprouted cereal contains a number of natural enzymes that can break down a complex polysaccharide molecule in starch into simpler sugars, which are converted by alcohol to fermentation.
Preparation involves the procedure of cleaning, disinfecting and soaking.
First of all, we clean our grain. We take a container (pots or a cup), pour out our grain and fill it with water. Set aside for 15 minutes, then mix and remove the grain that has surfaced and all the garbage with it. We repeat the procedure 2-3 times, we focus on cleanliness, nothing should pop up anymore. The thing is that the pop-up grain is unsuitable.
Now, just in case, we disinfect our culture. To do this, we need to prepare an iodine solution (approximately 20-25 drops of iodine per 5 liters of water, we will proceed from this dosage). The water temperature should be about 15 degrees (this is just running water from the tap). Fill our barley with a solution and leave it for 2 hours. Disinfection can also be carried out using a solution of potassium permanganate.
You can start soaking. We drain the disinfectant solution and fill the grain with cold water (10-15 C) so that the water is 2-3 cm above the layer. We put it all in a dark, cool room (the cellar is perfect, although you can use the pantry) for 6-8 hours. Then we drain the water, mix our grain and put in the same place for 6-8 hours, only now we do not fill it with water. We repeat the cycle 4 times, i.e. approximately 2 days. On the second day of soaking, the grain swells and a viable root is clearly observed in it.
What is barley malt and what is it drunk and eaten with
Malt is the result of seed germination. Use it to make beer, wine and whiskey, and also bread. By the way, malt is not only barley or rye, but also from oats, wheat and even corn. However, these types of malt are not beer and are suitable only for the preparation of wine and whiskey.
This product is needed due to the fact that when maize, barley or rye sprouts, it undergoes chemical changes leading to diastasis. The latter is needed in order to dissolve and saccharify starch, as well as to obtain maltose, a sugar capable of fermentation. So, malt refers to fermented foods. In order to get malt for beer, the grain is first steeped and only then germinated. Changes begin to occur already upon soaking, when the grain swells: here diastasis and carbonic acid are formed. During germination, these processes become even more intense. In this case, starch dissolves and glucose, sugar and maltose are formed. It is moisture that launches all life processes in rye and barley.
It used to be that barley malt is only suitable for beer on which a leaf did not appear during germination. In fact, a leaf is needed, but it is germinated only at low temperature. This must be taken into account before preparing malt at home. In the production of beer, only barley malt is used. Rye is most often used for baking or added to sweets, soups, second, side dish, salad. It is also used in folk medicine, for example, for skin diseases and for "female" diseases (for example, erosion). Malt is also used to treat hair: like a mask. But the main use of malt is still getting beer and other drinks. It is because of him, by the way, that beer is called liquid bread.
Barley malt can be dry or green.
How to make malt yourself: theory
First of all, you need to be prepared for that, then this is a laborious business.
- The most important thing is to stop the growth of seeds in time so that they do not use up all their nutrients. To do this, barley malt (and any other) is dried.
- When preparing malt for beer, it is important to choose the right grain. It must have a high ability to germinate. In just harvested barley, it is small - it is better to choose grains harvested a couple of months (or more) ago. In addition, it is good if all the barley is the same size: it is easier to work with.
- Malt for beer should be prepared with quality water. It should not contain heavy metals and chlorine. The best option is spring, filtered, from a well or defended.
Before you prepare the malt at home, you need to check how intensively the seeds germinate. Just soak a hundred or two grains, and after a couple of days, see how many of them have sprouted. If sprouts appeared in 90 out of a hundred, this is normal germination. In other cases, it is better to use barley for other purposes.
First, beer malt must be disinfected and cleaned of debris that could interfere with germination.
- To do this, take a bucket or a large pan, and cereals are poured with warm water. Water (from 35 degrees to forty) should cover grains of 5-6 centimeters.
- Mix in five minutes, remove debris and pop-up grain.
- Now pour the cold water.
- We are waiting another hour.
- Again we remove garbage and again we drain water.
- Заливаем новой водой, добавляем йод или марганцовку, растворенную в воде.
- На десяток литров воды нужны пара граммов марганцовки или три десятка капель йода.
- Сливаем воду через три часа.
Иногда бывает так, что после дезинфекции ячмень может не прорасти, но с другой стороны, если не дезинфицировать его, на зерне может появиться плесень, то есть, болезнетворные микроорганизмы, солод уничтожающие. Так что дезинфицировать или нет, лучше решить самостоятельно.
Насыщение жидкостью и кислородом
The next thing to do with barley is to soak it, saturating it with liquid and oxygen. It takes one and a half days, that is, 36 hours. All this time you need to pour barley with water for 6 hours, then leave it dry. Water should cover the barley three centimeters, its temperature should be about 12 degrees. After six hours, drain it along with the garbage, mix the barley and let it breathe for six hours and pour water again. So all a day and a half. This procedure should take place in the basement or anywhere where there is coolness and no light.
Making the grain bloom!
Sprouting. One of the main points in the transformation of barley into barley malt. Here we start the process of breaking down starch and converting it into sugar. Here we will need a baking sheet or tray.
- Pour barley evenly on it (the thickness of the layer is from a couple of centimeters to five).
- Cover the barley with a cloth (cotton).
- It absorbs moisture unnecessary for the grains and gives it back if liquid is needed for the grains.
- Ideal will be the temperature in the room, equal to 12-15 degrees.
- Also, the room should be well ventilated.
- Mix the barley once every 24 hours, spray it with water.
- It will sprout for about a week, but if the roots appeared and tangled so that they can be untwisted, you can finish germination earlier.
Rye sprouts in five days and should not be watered on the last day. The roots of barley grains should be twice as long as the grain itself, and rye grains should not be longer than the grain itself. If the cereal has sprouted, it smells like cucumber and has a sweetish taste. Now we have green malt. This type of malt is used to make whiskey or moonshine, but green malt is stored for a maximum of three days. That is why we immediately proceed to dry it.
We remove malt from water
To begin with, we remove the remaining water from the tray with sprouted barley. Then it is transferred to a room or any other room where the air temperature is high. In winter, a room section near a battery or stove is ideal for this. In the summer, an attic and even a roof are suitable (if the weather is hot and rain is not expected). The drying process lasts four days. If the roots have appeared, and there are still no sprouts, it can still be dried anyway.
Malt for beer is almost ready. If you want light beer or whiskey, it is dried in the oven (temperature 80 degrees) and the temperature rises for the first half hour. The initial temperature is 30 degrees, then it is raised every five minutes. If the beer is dark, it is almost roasted: the temperature is 105 degrees, the drying time is 4 hours.
Separation of grain from sprouts
It remains to separate the grain from the sprouts and stand. For this, the product is either kneaded by hands so that all the roots are separated, or packed in a bag and rolled. After the malt is screened with a fan or in the wind.
Now it is put in bags and we stand at least a month in dryness and heat before brewing beer or whiskey. From barley, malt yield is up to 79 percent, from rye - a maximum of 78.
- To grind your malt, use a coffee grinder, meat grinder or even a grinder for cereals.
- You can use vinegar or vodka as a disinfection. The last grain is rinsed, washed in vinegar for a long time. A mouthwash is also suitable, but after it you need to rinse the barley to remove the smell.
- Barley can also be germinated in the refrigerator.
- The grain should be clean, that is, without husk.
- If part of the barley is overgrown, and part is acidified, you can remove the acidified and continue to deal with the overgrown.
- If possible, get the highest quality barley or rye: how they sprout and how your beer will taste will depend on it.
- Sometimes beer on homemade malt turns pale. In order for your drink to have a golden color, you can mix two types of malt.
Of course, in industrial conditions, malt is prepared differently and using malt houses. But if you make malt at home, you can make beer completely unique.
Terms of germination of grain for the preparation of malt
Good malt is the foundation of high-quality moonshine. For the preparation of malt from various cultures, germination of grain has certain periods. This should always be remembered. The longest term is required for barley: 9-10 days. Then follows oats: 8–9 days. Wheat germinates in 7-8 days. Rye needs 5-6 days, and millet will sprout in just 4-5 days. In order not to overexpose the sprouted grain, the distillery needs to compile a table for the timing of germination of grain and keep it at hand.
- Barley-9-10 days. for germination
- Oats - 8-9 days. for germination
- Wheat - 7-8 days. for germination
- Rye-5-6 days. for germination
- Proso-4-5 for germination
As you can see, the cultures are arranged as the time required for germination decreases. For grain, you need to prepare a wooden box. It is best suited for high-quality and simultaneous germination. But if it’s hard to find, you can use enameled dishes (only not made of other metals).
Below is a step-by-step recipe for making malt for later use in brewing moonshine.
There are signs of dissolution:
- the root length should be from 1 to 1.5 grain lengths (up to 2 for dark malt)
- the taste of grain changes from mealy to sweetish
- grain crunches when cracked
- the grain takes on the smell of fresh cucumber.
- grains are easily crushed by fingers, leaving a powdery trace.
If everything goes well, then the malt should germinate within a few days, namely:
- for light malt it is 7-8 days
- for dark malt - up to 9 days.
There are special growth activators that can reduce the period of malt germination at home to 5-6 days, but we will not rush, right?
When the malt has sprouted enough, it must be dried.
Drying malt at home.
You can dry freshly grown home-made malt right on the street on a sunny day. To do this, it should be scattered with a thin layer on the place designated for drying, it is important not to cover the place of drying with a film, it is better to take a light cloth or mesh.
After the main drying, it is necessary to increase the temperature to 40 degrees and continue drying at this temperature throughout the day. After low-temperature drying, the stage of special drying begins.
For light homemade malt, this stage lasts for 4 hours. The temperature should be increased to 80 degrees. If you want to cook dark malt, then the temperature should be raised to 105-110 degrees.
Malt can be dried in the oven by opening the door.
When the drying of homemade malt is completed, it is necessary to remove sprouts from it.
Removing sprouts is not a complicated process. To do this, you need a canvas bag in which malt is poured. The neck of the bag is tied and the rolling process begins. After rolling, you will need to separate the sprouts. To do this, take a fan and set it so that the force of the air flow is enough to blow off the sprouts, but not enough to blow off the grain. Then the malt is poured in a thin stream into a container, and the fan draws all the sprouts out of it.
If necessary, you can repeat the process of skating and movement.
The final step in making malt at home is curing
You will be interested in:
Caramel malt - manufacture. Caramel malt is a special malt and serves as an addition to the main malts. In the production of car.
Not much has been written about how beer is brewed, but today it will be about brewing beer at home and using the helpers.
Description of stewed malt. The color of stewed malt according to EMU is from 30 to 40 units. The use of this type of malt in the mound is limited.
Malt is a germinated seed of cereal crops. Mostly malt is produced from barley, less often from rye or wheat. Used in preparation.
Dark malt (munich dark). Munich dark is an even darker malt of the Munich type, its color on EMU is 22-28 units. Will distinguish.
Sprout from grain
- Before making malt at home, the grain is carefully sieved, first through a large sieve, then through a fine sieve.
- In sufficiently hot water (50–55 ° C), it is washed, getting rid of debris and what floats to the surface.
- It is best to use running water so that the grains are washed as clean as possible. But if this is not possible, then washing is repeated 3-5 times (the water should be hot all the time).
- Then you need to soak the grain. At this stage of preparing malt for moonshine, you will need either wooden or enameled dishes.
Pure grain for germination is placed in a prepared container and pour warm water so that all the grains are in the water. As they cool, the water is removed and the warmer is added. This should be done after 7-8 hours. All the time you need to watch the raw materials. As soon as we notice that the husk is easily detached from the pulp and a small crack has formed on the skin, which means piercing the sprout, take a seed and try to bend it slightly. If during the preparation of barley malt during bending the grain does not break, then soaking should be stopped immediately and go to the next step - malt cultivation.
We drain the water from the dishes. Then in a dark room on the baking sheet we spread the grains so that the layer does not exceed 3 cm (otherwise rotting is possible). Cover the baking sheet with a damp cloth. In the room, it is necessary to strictly observe the temperature regime. The temperature should not exceed 17–18 ° С with humidity not lower than 40%.
In the early days of grain germination, you need to constantly monitor how the process proceeds. Every six hours, the grain is ventilated, shovel and, if necessary, moisturize the fabric. To reduce the loss of starch, the flow of air into the room is limited and the temperature is gradually increased. But the fewer days left before the end of this process, the more thoroughly the grain is mixed and cooled.
In order not to forget how many days you are already germinating the grain, and how much is left, you need to write down the start date of the process.
How to dry malt
There are main signs, the presence of which suggests that it is time to stop grain growth:
- sprouts have reached a certain length - from 0.5 to 0.6 cm,
- the roots are 1.2–1.4 cm long. They interlock with each other,
- grains lose their floury taste,
- when cracking, a crunch is heard,
- grains acquire a pleasant cucumber smell.
If you find that the grain has the above properties, then move on to another stage - drying the malt.
In the process of how to make malt, you need to take care of a dry, warm room. Malt is scattered in the place prepared for drying and dried. It is necessary to carefully monitor the temperature and humidity in the dryer. Air temperature should not exceed 40 ° C.
Barley malt or malt from any other grain is dried until the grain moisture is at least 3–3.5%.
Dry malt has the following properties:
- its size is smaller than it was before drying,
- dry to the touch
- with friction in the hands, the roots easily separate.
After making sure that the malt is sufficiently dry, carefully rub it with your hands and separate the sprouts. Then sift through a sieve.
For malt, it is necessary to prepare a suitable container, it can be glassware. Pour the sifted malt, cork tightly and store in a dry room.
Description of the manufacturing technology of one malt whiskey
- barley grain is soaked and germinated for several days, turning into malt,
- malt is also dried for several days at moderate temperatures,
- after the drying process, the malt is crushed to the size of the grains,
- then the crushed malt is steamed in hot water and the required time is maintained,
- the resulting gruel is called a must.
Wort or crushed malt (now called grains) is cooled and poured into a fermentation tank.
- yeast is added to this wort and the fermentation process ends within about 10 days,
- we separate the small grains and the cake, now the wort is called braga and it is poured into a distillation cube,
- the first time the mash is allowed, distilled without fractionation in a standard ordinary cube and crude alcohol is obtained,
Then re-distilled freshly released drink, remember that it is necessary to separate the "head" and "tail" of the distillation. We leave the middle part “body”, and the product purified by the second distillation is poured into an oak barrel for infusion.
How to make whiskey
Very simple, and you need to make Whiskey at home with the right technology. It is allowed to start tasting, seasoned and infused just a couple of weeks after cooking with a light snack. If you have patience and pour it into an oak barrel and wait half a year, a year, you will end up with high-quality, tasty, fragrant, first-class whiskey, and you will understand that everything you drank before that is a miserable likeness and fake.
So, we will begin the process of whiskey production, taking our time from the very first steps, carefully reading carefully, if you need to come back and re-read the moments that you forgot, do everything in stages, purchasing the ingredients for the production of whiskey, the steps should be consistent.
Buy a couple buckets of barley on the collective farm market. Conduct the washing and preparation of barley in a place convenient for you, the bathroom of the apartment or the courtyard of a private house. Find the appropriate capacity; pour grain into it, in a volume convenient for you, one, two or three buckets, maybe more, it all depends on the processing possibilities. Fill it with water above the level of 5 cm, leave for 10 minutes, periodically stirring the grain in the water to the bottom of the container. Husk will pop up and empty grain that will not germinate, drain the water along with the grain waste, refill the same amount of water.
- Water should preferably correspond to the temperature (+4 + 14 ° С), and germinate the grain at a temperature ideally (+12, + 14 ° С), but not more than + 18 ° С.
- In the future, it will not hurt to have a drain hole in the form of a strainer in the tank for soaking grain, for convenience, when draining dirty water, the grain remains in the tank (basin or tray).
- After the second water change, we can proceed to disinfect our grains in a weak solution of potassium permanganate, the color of the solution