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How to recognize breast cancer in the early stages

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  1. The appearance of discharge from the nipples. If a liquid is periodically released from them (it happens in any color: from clear to bloody or purulent green), you need to urgently consult a specialist and undergo an examination. The appearance of secretions does not depend on the phase of the woman’s menstrual cycle.
  2. The appearance of small wounds on the nipples and skin of the chest. Further, these wounds can turn into ulcers, and skin lesions can be quite extensive, so in no case should the problem be triggered.
  3. An increase in the size of the lymph nodes. One of the first signs of cancer is swelling of the lymph nodes in the armpit, which may be accompanied by painful sensations.
  4. The presence of seals. Here you need to say right away, tightness in the chest is not a reason for panic. Most of them eventually turn out to be benign and successfully treatable. They can be detected by self-examination. Therefore, every woman, regardless of age, should regularly perform manual breast examinations, which are easy to do at home without assistance. At the first visit to a mammologist, you need to ask him to show how to properly examine the chest.
  5. Change the color and appearance of the skin of the chest. In cancer, the color of the skin above the location of the tumor may become pinkish or even purple. Peeling or swelling of the skin may be observed. If you raise your hands above your head on the skin of the chest, cavities or the so-called “orange peel”, wrinkles and folds become noticeable, you should immediately consult a doctor.
  6. Change in the shape of the breast or nipple. When breast cancer is affected, the shape of the breast can change: it becomes flattened or, conversely, elongated. An alarm will also be that the nipples have become hollow. The stronger the disease is started, the more the nipples will be drawn in.
  7. The appearance of pain in the chest. They do not occur in all women who have cancer, but the likelihood of their occurrence is still high. In this case, do not confuse them with the usual soreness and swelling of the chest during a certain phase of the menstrual cycle.
  8. Irritation or a sharp increase in the sensitivity of the nipples, pain, or even swelling.

What to do if breast cancer is suspected

If there is at least one symptom, you should immediately consult a doctor. No need to panic, and because of fear of hearing an unfavorable diagnosis, postpone a visit to a mammologist. There are many tools for diagnosing cancer at an early stage.

All of them are painless and accessible to all women. Official statistics show that at least 70% of women who are diagnosed with breast cancer of the first stage annually undergo treatment and are completely cured of a dangerous disease. The main thing is to detect and recognize the disease in time.

Stages of the disease

At this stage of the disease, pathological cells are detected in the walls of the ducts of the gland. This is a non-invasive form of cancer, since cancer cells do not extend beyond the walls and do not penetrate into healthy tissues. Sometimes stage 0 is not considered an oncological process. However, there is a high probability that under the influence of adverse conditions or in the absence of proper treatment, the damaged cells will continue to change and cause the growth of a malignant tumor. The stage is asymptomatic.

It is considered the beginning of invasive oncology. Cancer cells form a small tumor whose sizes do not exceed two cm in diameter. She remains within the body. When probing the gland, a slight painless compaction can be detected. It must be borne in mind that cancer is most successfully treated at this stage. Full recovery occurs without excision of the mammary gland. Therefore, a woman preserves not only her breasts, but also the possibility of natural feeding.

At this stage, oncology develops in four directions:

  • The size of the tumor may remain the same, but cancer cells are detected in the lymph nodes in the axillary region.
  • A malignant neoplasm can grow up to 5 cm, single cancer cells in axillary lymph nodes are not detected. The diameter of the formation is 2-5 cm, the appearance of cancer cells in the lymph nodes located in the axillary region is noted.
  • There are no single cancer cells in the lymph nodes, the diameter of the tumor becomes more than 5 cm.
  • Feeling the breast helps to detect a slight tightness. Other symptoms are usually not observed.

The 0th, 1st and 2nd stages of breast cancer are considered early forms of the process.

In the early stages, it is possible to use gentle treatment methods that allow you to maintain the natural shape of the breast and the functionality of the mammary glands.

With the development of the disease with a transition to the late stage, a complete excision of the gland will be required. Do not despair, as modern medicine has methods of surgical treatment with simultaneous plastic surgery of the chest. If there are no contraindications, plastic surgery is performed immediately after excision of the tissues.

Late stages of the disease

With the development of the process, the symptoms become pronounced.

This form belongs to the category of locally advanced oncology and is divided into 3 types.

  • Stage III A is diagnosed if there is a tumor with a diameter of not more than 5 cm. The spread of metastases to the lymph nodes continues. Damage to the sternal lymph nodes is not ruled out. With an increase in the size of the tumor, cancer cells infect soldered or separately located lymph nodes.
  • Stage III B is determined if a tumor of any size grows in the skin of the gland or in the chest area. Pronounced signs of breast cancer in this case are the appearance of swelling of tissues and small nodules on the surface of the skin. Sometimes the mammary gland acquires a reddish tint and severe swelling as a result of blockage of the lymphatic vessels.
  • Stage III C means the presence of a tumor of any size, growing in the surrounding tissue. Lymph nodes can be affected in the axillary, sternum, as well as in the subclavian or supraclavicular region.

Germination of metastases to other internal organs occurs. This degree is called metastatic cancer. Sometimes a process is irreversible. Then the treatment is designed to reduce the symptoms of the disease, but can not eliminate its cause.

Cancer is an insidious disease that can recur with a full, as it seemed, recovery. Sometimes relapse occurs due to single cancer cells not destroyed by treatment, or metastases located in hard-to-reach places. Optional re-development of oncology in the mammary gland. Relapse can affect the lungs, bones, brain, or liver.

Chest injury

The mammary gland is a very tender substance. And trauma can lead to the development of malignancy. Therefore, breasts must be protected.

Doctors trace a clear connection between abortions made by a woman and the subsequent development of breast cancer. The more abortions, the higher this risk. Especially if the very first pregnancy was artificially interrupted.

Mastopathy

If a woman suffers from mastopathy, she should be especially attentive to her health. With this disease, small nodules begin to form in the mammary gland, reaching their maximum in size before menstruation. However, they themselves can disappear immediately after menstruation. And it is these cells that form the nodules that can be transformed into malignant. Therefore, the treatment of mastopathy is necessary. Do not rely on "maybe" and wait until everything goes by itself. Otherwise, there is a high risk that you will need another treatment - the treatment of such an insidious disease as breast cancer.

The first stage of the survey

With your arms down, stand in front of the mirror, completely relax. Look carefully for changes in the size or shape of the breast. They are visible with the naked eye even at the very early stages of the disease - it is impossible to miss them.

Then raise your arms above your head and see if the shape of the chest has changed, if there are bulges or indentations, or wrinkled skin. Check for nipple discharge. To do this, gently squeeze them. Beware of sharp and rough movements to avoid injuring the nipples.

The second stage of verification

When you do an examination of the mammary glands, proceed to the next step - a manual examination. Raising your arms alternately, carefully probe the breasts with your fingers. They should have a uniform structure, no seals should be determined. Pay attention to pain - normally they should not be.

Diagnosis of the disease

Even if you know all the symptoms of breast cancer, you should not diagnose the disease yourself - consult a doctor immediately. The doctor will carefully listen to the woman’s complaints, find out about the family predisposition to cancer, will conduct a manual (manual) examination of the mammary glands and lymph nodes. If necessary, other examination methods will be prescribed.

Mammography

This X-ray examination allows breast cancer to be detected one and a half to two years before the woman herself and even her doctor can do it. It is safe to say that mammography is the most reliable way to diagnose breast cancer early.

The principle of diagnosing a disease is simple and 100% error free. Almost all malignant breast tumors have a large accumulation of calcium salts. They are formed as a result of cell decay. In the picture, these clusters are visible as white lines.

However, mammography can be prescribed not only for the diagnosis of breast cancer, but also to clarify the stage of the disease. With the help of X-ray examination, the size of the tumor is established. By the way, the malignancy of the tumor is also easy to establish using mammography.

Breast Ultrasound

Ultrasound examination will allow the doctor to determine the structure of the neoplasm in the chest, the size of the tumor.

If necessary, after all studies, the doctor prescribes a biopsy. A biopsy is a sampling of a small area of ​​a tumor for subsequent laboratory testing. The cells themselves are studied - whether they are malignant or benign, from where they come from the lobes of the mammary gland or the milk ducts. It also determines if there is an invasion of adjacent tissues.

With the help of laboratory tests, it is possible to determine whether neoplasm cells are sensitive to the influence of hormones such as progesterone and estrogen. If the sensitivity is confirmed, perhaps the doctor will decide on the appointment of hormonal therapy.

Surgery

It is surgery that is more often used to treat breast cancer. Although almost always surgery is combined with chemotherapy and / or radiation. Surgical intervention is also different. The most sparing is the organ-saving method, when only the part of the breast affected by the tumor is removed. And at advanced stages of the disease, a mastectomy is performed - complete removal of the breast cancer affected by the cancer.

If doctors perform a complete removal of the mammary gland, then, as a rule, the lymph nodes in the armpits are also removed. After all, these nodes in most cases also turn out to be affected by a malignant tumor. Please note - the removal of lymph nodes almost always leads to the development of severe swelling of the hand. In order to eliminate this phenomenon, it is necessary to perform special exercises that relieve swelling and restore mobility of the hand.

Many women panic when they learn about the need to remove the breast. And this is understandable, because the aesthetic side suffers very much. Today, this shortcoming is easily corrected - doctors conduct reconstructive surgery. For example, the introduction of silicone implants.

Radiation therapy

In most cases, after surgical removal of a malignant tumor, doctors prescribe a woman a course of radiation therapy. During which X-ray irradiation of tissue sites and lymph nodes, next to which there was a malignant tumor, is performed. This measure is necessary in order to destroy the remnants of cancer cells that could remain there after the operation.

Radiation therapy is a serious burden on an already weakened woman's body. Often there are side effects such as swelling of the mammary glands, redness and peeling of the skin, the appearance of blisters at the site of irradiation. In rare cases, symptoms of general malaise may occur - coughing, weakness, drowsiness, nausea, and vomiting.

Chemotherapy

You can not do without chemotherapy - drugs that neutralize the negative effects of hormones. They should be prescribed only by a doctor - therefore, we will not give the names of the drugs. Self-treatment can lead to irreversible consequences.

Therapy is carried out with the help of cytostatics - antitumor pharmacological drugs that negatively affect cancer cells. In the event that a woman has breast cancer, it will be impossible to do without chemotherapy.

Doctors use two types of chemotherapy:

Adjuvant chemotherapy

Such additional drug therapy is prescribed for operable breast cancer. Sometimes it can be prescribed both before the operation and after it.

Chemotherapy Therapy

This type is prescribed for the advanced stage of breast cancer, when metastases begin to spread far beyond the breast. The main goal of such chemotherapy is to reduce the size of the tumor. This therapy is prescribed to reduce the size of the tumor so that it can be surgically removed.

It is very difficult to predict the effectiveness of such treatment - in some cases it is not effective enough. But often, such treatment allows, if not completely defeating the cancer, then significantly improving the quality of life of a sick person.

This treatment has many side effects. A sick person has blood cell damage, severe nausea and vomiting, hair loss, weakness. This happens due to the fact that drugs, in addition to malignant cells, also affect healthy body cells.

In conclusion, I would like to once again remind women of the need for an attentive attitude. Regularly conduct a self-examination of the mammary glands and visit a mammologist.

Signs of breast cancer in women

Naturally, breast cancer, like every disease, is not asymptomatic. And it’s quite important to know these very first signs breast cancer in women . Knowing the symptoms, you can identify the disease in time and consult a mammologist for help.

  • Allocations. Very quickly after the development of the tumor, the woman notices discharge from the nipples. At first, they are quite insignificant, but given the progression of the disease, they are becoming more plentiful. The color of the discharge is very different - purulent, transparent, yellow-green, bloody. Soon after the onset of discharge, wounds and abrasions appear on the nipples. When the problem is not noticed in a timely manner and breast cancer has moved to an advanced stage, then abrasions turn into ulcerative extensive nipple lesions , as well as the rest of the skin of the chest.
  • Lump in the chest. One of the first clear symptoms of sternum cancer in women is compaction. These seals are pretty easy to test even for yourself. Naturally, fortunately, the majority of all identified tumors are benign. But, one way or another, you need to see a doctor as quickly as possible for help. Sometimes benign neoplasms need to be removed . And the faster this is done, the less damage to health.
  • Nipple retraction. Sometimes the nipple can significantly change - it is drawn into the inside of the chest. And the stronger the infection, the more it is drawn in.
  • Breast change. Another symptom of breast cancer in women is a modification of the mammary glands. Both the color of the skin integument and the structure change. During raising above the head of the hands, peculiar "dimples" are formed on the chest. In very advanced stages, the skin resembles an orange peel, similar to cellulite. The shape of the breast also changes - it can be elongated, flattened, or get any other shape.
  • Peeling skin. Sometimes a cancerous growth can lead to peeling of the skin. Therefore, this phenomenon also does not need to be ignored.
  • Discoloration of the skin. Skin can get very different shade - from crimson to light pink.
  • Chest pain. Sooner or later, sensations of pain in the affected chest begin to arise. And these sensations can be quite intense.
  • Enlarged lymph nodes under the armpits. In almost all cases of the appearance of malignant neoplasms, it leads to an increase in lymph nodes in the armpit, on the infected side. Помимо этого,может быть даже сильная отечность плеча .

Когда женщина у себя определила хотя бы один из перечисленных выше симптомов, то она обязана как можно быстрей проконсультироваться с врачом. На данный момент врачи довольно быстро и точно ставят точный диагноз. Most often, anxiety turns out to be false, and the neoplasm is benign. However, in this case too, treatment is needed.

However, even if it is determined that you have breast cancer, you do not need to panic. If the disease is determined at an early stage, a favorable outcome is almost guaranteed. But in the case when a woman seeks help very late, the treatment will be practically ineffective and avoid deadly the outcome will be very difficult.

Is there breast cancer in men?

Breast cancer in men is much less common than in women, and, as a rule, men after 55 years of age suffer from it. The reasons for the development of oncology are poor ecology, as well as a hereditary factor. Workers who are associated with atomic radiation are more likely to be injured. During radiation therapy, which is required to treat chest pathologies, cancer risk also increases significantly.

What are the symptoms of breast cancer in men? Most often, cancer symptoms occur in different ways. As a rule, seals are detected in the tissues of the chest. It is easier to identify them, since the mammary glands in men are small. The neoplasm is more noticeable in the later stages. But it is not always breast enlargement in men is a sign of cancer. Also, sometimes there is the formation of secretions (bloody or transparent), changes in the nipple, its retraction. Likely process in the form of ulcers and wounds.

In men, as in women, changes in the lymph nodes are determined. As a rule, the increase passes from the axillary part, which is closer to the infected breast.

Stages of breast cancer in women

It was already mentioned above that the faster the disease is determined, the higher the chances of a full treatment. Therefore, it is necessary to consider which breast cancer there are stages.

  • Zero This is not an invasive stage of a cancerous tumor. A malignant neoplasm is localized only in the mammary gland, and does not go beyond it. The disease that is diagnosed at this stage can be successfully treated in all cases. But alas, due to neglect of her health at this stage of the pathology, a woman very rarely consults a doctor. Although signs of breast cancer can be detected already at this stage.
  • First one. At this stage, cancer cells gradually invade neighboring breast tissue. The size of the malignant neoplasm at this stage is approximately 2 cm. The lymph nodes are not yet affected. The main part of all cases of the disease is determined at this stage. Treatment also shows a rather effective result.
  • The second one. In addition to nearby tissues and the breast, cancer cells infect those lymph nodes that are on the same side . The size of the neoplasm is 2-5 cm.
  • The third. At this stage, nearby tissues are infected, the mammary gland itself is infected, the lymph nodes are soldered together. The size of the neoplasm is more than 5 cm.
  • Fourth. This stage of the disease is the most difficult. The neoplasm begins to go far beyond the borders of the chest - the thoracic internal lymph nodes, supraclavicular lymph nodes, into the lungs, axillary part, bone tissue, brain, and liver. Unfortunately, the treatment at this stage is almost not effective. Naturally, treatment can slightly prolong the patient’s life, however, to fully cure breast cancer glands are absolutely impossible .

Treatment of breast cancer in women

When the doctor makes a diagnosis of breast cancer, he will select the most appropriate treatment for the woman. In the modern medical arsenal there are quite a lot of different ways that make it possible to cure cancer. What specific treatment method will be used will depend on many factors, for example, the type of cancer cells, stage of cancer, etc. But the whole treatment can be divided into three types.

Surgical intervention

It is surgery that is usually used during the treatment of breast cancer. Although almost always surgery is combined with radiation or chemotherapy. But surgical intervention may also be different. The most sparing is the organ-preserving method, when only the part of the breast infected with the tumor is excised. And at the advanced stages of the disease, a mastectomy is performed - a complete excision of the mammary gland by an infected cancerous tumor.

When doctors perform a complete removal of the breast, the lymph nodes in the axillary parts are most often removed. Since these nodes, as a rule, also turn out to be infected malignant cells. You need to know that the removal of these lymph nodes almost always leads to the appearance of significant swelling of the hand. To eliminate this phenomenon, you need to do special exercises that restore arm mobility and relieve swelling.

Quite a lot of patients panic when they learn about the need for breast removal. And this is quite logical, since the aesthetic side suffers very much. But at the moment, this drawback is quite simple to fix - surgeons perform a reconstructive operation. For example, the installation of silicone implants.

Most often, after surgery to remove a malignant neoplasm, doctors prescribe radiation therapy. With this method of treatment, X-ray irradiation of areas of the skin and lymph nodes, near which a malignant tumor was located, is carried out. This measure is required to remove the remaining cancer cells, which are likely to be here after breast removal.

Naturally, radiation therapy is a rather significant burden on an already weak female body. Very often, such side effects appear as the appearance of blisters on the irradiation site, peeling and redness of the skin, swelling of the mammary glands. In very rare cases, it is likely that signs of general malaise appear - weakness, cough, vomiting, nausea, drowsiness.

You can’t do without taking medications either - medicines and chemotherapy are prescribed without fail, this treatment neutralizes the negative effect of hormones. Only a doctor must prescribe medications - for this reason we will not give the names of the drugs. Self-prescribed treatment can lead to irreversible processes.

Chemotherapy is carried out with the help of cytostatics - pharmacological antitumor agents that adversely affect cancer cells. In the case when a woman has breast cancer, it will be impossible to do without chemotherapy.

In the end, you need to once again recall the need for a careful attitude. Perform breast self-tests periodically. Do not ignore trips to the mammologist. Women over 40 years old are required to visit a doctor and perform a mammogram once a year. And older women are required to perform a full examination every six months.

A common cancer among women is breast cancer. The success of treatment and the life expectancy of the patient depends on the timely detection of the disease. The symptoms, stages of development, methods of diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer are described below.

The mammary glands consist of lobules, or glands, channels for transferring milk to the nipples, adipose, connective tissue, blood and lymph vessels.

Breast cancer is a lesion of the breast by malignant neoplasms that replace the glandular tissue. Most often, a carcinoma develops that develops in the lobules or ducts, but in addition to it, there are about 20 other types of malignant breast formations.

The frequency of the disease is high among women over the age of 40, and the maximum number of cases of cancer is observed in the period 60-65 years.

Cancer cells have an abnormal structure and a high rate of division due to the rapid metabolism in them. Appearing in the tissues of the chest, they, as the disease develops, penetrate the nearby lymph nodes, and in the later stages they also affect distant tissues, including bones and internal organs.

In addition, the life cycle of malignant cells is shorter than healthy, and their decay causes general intoxication of the body.

Doctors see the main cause of breast cancer in. More often, the disease develops in women in when the production of hormones changes dramatically. In this case, less progesterone and estrogen are produced, which affects the condition of the mammary glands.

An adversity is considered not only a lack, but also an excess of female sex hormones, for example, the risk of developing breast cancer is increased in nulliparous women after 30 years and as a result of abortions. Pregnancy, childbirth and breastfeeding, on the contrary, significantly reduce the likelihood of malignant cells in the mammary gland.

Stages of breast cancer, symptoms

The international classification of the stages of breast cancer distinguishes four stages of the development of the disease.

The pathological focus does not exceed 2 cm in diameter, and the cancer has not yet affected neighboring tissues and lymph nodes. There are no metastases, fatty tissue of the breast and skin are not affected.

On palpation, a painless small seal is felt - this is the only sign of breast cancer at an early stage.

The tumor reaches from 2 to 5 cm, does not germinate in adjacent tissues. The second stage is divided into two categories:

  • IIb - the neoplasm increases in size,
  • IIa - penetration of cancer cells into axillary lymph nodes.

Symptoms of breast cancer in stage 2a are wrinkling of the breast and a decrease in the elasticity of the skin over the tumor. After squeezing the skin in this place, wrinkles do not straighten for a long time.

No more than two metastases in the affected gland can be detected, often there is a symptom of umbilication - retraction of the nipple or skin at the location of the tumor.

The diameter of the neoplasm exceeds 5 cm, it can affect the subcutaneous fat layer and dermis. Symptoms of stage 3 breast cancer: the skin resembles a lemon peel, it is pulled over the tumor, often swollen, if there are metastases, then no more than two.

Pathology affects the entire mammary gland, ulcers appear on the skin of the chest. Metastases are multiple and spread to other organs and tissues, primarily affecting the lymph nodes located under the shoulder blades, in the armpits and clavicles.

The distant spread of metastases affects the skin and soft tissues, from the internal organs - the lungs, ovaries, liver, from the bones - femoral and pelvic.

Symptoms and signs of breast cancer in stages

With breast cancer, symptoms and signs can be divided into four groups:

  1. The appearance of seals,
  2. Breast skin changes,
  3. Secretions from juices,
  4. Swollen lymph nodes.

In the first stage with small sizes, the cancer does not manifest itself actively. It can be detected by chance, when groping a dense nodule in the mammary gland. If the tumor is malignant, it is in most cases painless to the touch, and the presence of pain during palpation most often indicates a benign formation (mastitis, mastopathy).

The cancerous node is very dense, with an uneven surface (tuberous), immobile or slightly displaced upon exposure, often attached to the skin or surrounding tissues, fixed. Larger seals appear at stages 2-4 of breast cancer (from 3 to 10 cm).

Attention! There are forms of breast cancer in which the mammary gland is painful to the touch - it is an erysipelatous and pseudo-inflammatory form of a diffuse tumor. They are characterized by rapid growth, the absence of separate dense nodes, redness of the skin of the chest, and an increase in body temperature.

With a malignant formation, retraction of the skin, folds, wrinkles, localized swelling in the place above the tumor appears on the chest. With the further development of cancer on the skin, nipple, or in the area of ​​the areola, small non-healing ulcers appear, which then merge, bleed, and suppuration develop (the last stage).

The next symptom of breast cancer in women is discharge from the nipples. Depending on the form and stage of the disease, they may be cloudy or transparent, whitish or yellowish, contain impurities of pus or blood.

The nipple is compacted and looks swollen. Any discharge from the mammary gland, especially outside of pregnancy and the period of breastfeeding, should be regarded as a warning signal and an occasion to be examined by a mammologist.

From stage 2 cancer cells enter the nearest lymph nodes, which leads to an increase in the latter. If the tumor affects only one mammary gland, then this symptom is observed on one side.

A clear sign of metastatic damage to the lymph nodes is their large size, density, draining, more often they are painless. In this case, the armpit area may swell, and in the later stages the arm also swells - due to poor outflow of lymph and blood (lymphostasis).

Breast Cancer Diagnosis

The main methods for diagnosing breast cancer:

  • mammogram removal,
  • blood test for the presence of tumor markers (in women under 30 years of age),
  • Breast ultrasound,
  • biopsy (taking a piece of tissue for examination).

The following methods allow assessing the general condition of the patient and the level of cancer cell prevalence in the body:

  • blood tests - general and biochemical (to determine the level of formed elements, ESR, cholesterol, amylase, liver samples, glucose, total protein, creatinine),
  • CT scan,
  • urinalysis to exclude pathology from the genitourinary sphere,
  • Ultrasound of internal organs,
  • radiography of bones, chest.

Determining the course of the disease, doctors use the TNM system, in conclusion, next to each letter they put the number:

  • T denotes the size of the tumor (from 0 to 4),
  • N - degree of damage to the lymph nodes (from 0 to 3),
  • M - the presence or absence of distant metastasis (0 or 1).

Self-examination

Since breast cancer does not appear at the initial stages of development, regular self-diagnosis is of great importance. It should be carried out on the 5-7th day of the monthly cycle, in good light, in front of a large mirror, completely removing clothes to the waist.

The mammary glands should be examined with raised and lowered hands, paying attention to their size, skin condition, color, symmetry. After this, you need to carefully feel the chest - any tissue seals (both nodular, focal, and diffuse, affecting the entire gland evenly) should be alert.

The self-examination also checks if there are any discharge from the nipples by clicking on them. At the end of the examination, palpation of the axillary, supra- and subclavian lymph nodes is carried out - in cancer they are smooth, dense, enlarged, and often painless.

Treatment of breast cancer is aimed at the complete destruction of malignant cells. At a late stage, when it is impossible to fully recover, symptomatic therapy is prescribed, for example, taking powerful painkillers to alleviate the condition. Treatment includes several areas that are most often combined with each other.

The objective of this method is to stop the aggressive development of the tumor, its growth for surgical intervention. It is considered as a preparatory stage before the operation and is carried out after removal of the neoplasm.

Radiation therapy is also indicated if it is impossible to operate, for example, in the presence of metastases in the brain.

It is used if receptors sensitive to progesterone and estrogen are detected by laboratory methods in cancer cells. For the treatment of breast cancer, analogues or antagonists of sex steroids are used.

In some cases, in addition to hormone therapy, ovaries are removed as they produce hormones that trigger tumor growth.

It is also called sighting. Cancer cells are able to protect themselves from the effects of radiation, chemo and hormone therapy, releasing special substances (EGFR factor). This is a certain obstacle to a quick cure.

For immunocorrection, that is, to reduce the response of malignant cells to therapeutic agents, Herceptin (Trastuzumab) is used. These are purified monoclonal antibodies specific for the protective factor of cancer cells.

The use of targeted therapy requires special equipment and highly qualified personnel in the clinic.

This method involves the introduction of drugs, is prescribed taking into account the characteristics of the patient and is indicated if:

  • The diameter of the neoplasm is more than 2 cm,
  • Tumor cells are low-grade,
  • A woman is of childbearing age,
  • Cancer cells have no receptors sensitive to progesterone and estrogen.

For chemotherapy for breast cancer, cytostatics are used - antitumor agents that have a detrimental effect on cancer cells. Examples of drugs are cyclophosphamide, adriablastin, mitoxantrone, doxorubicin, fluorouracil.

In oncology, three types of such treatment are distinguished:

  1. Adjuvant (prophylactic, additional) therapy is indicated if the tumor is operable and is used before and / or after surgery. She prepares the neoplasm for surgical removal.
  2. Treatment is prescribed for a generalized form of cancer, that is, for metastatic lesions of other tissues and organs. This method aims to destroy or reduce metastases to a minimum.
  3. Индукционный тип химиотерапии показан, если опухоль неоперабельна, и ее размеры нужно уменьшить до возможных для проведения операции.

Цитостатики имеют ряд побочных эффектов, которые выступают негативной стороной их применения. При химиотерапии вместе с раковыми неизбежно погибает и часть здоровых клеток.

Из побочных симптомов при этом могут ощущаться:

  • одышка,
  • тошнота и рвота, понос,
  • coloring of the mucous membranes in a yellowish tint, skin pigmentation,
  • dizziness, blurred consciousness,
  • decreased visual acuity,
  • hematuria (urine mixed with blood),
  • arrhythmia, palpitations,
  • hair loss,
  • itching, allergic skin rashes.

These problems are temporary, they disappear after rehabilitation treatment. Before chemotherapy, a detailed consultation and thorough preparation of the woman for the procedures are carried out.

Breast cancer surgery

The operation to completely remove the mammary gland is called a mastectomy, it is indicated starting from stage 3. Together with the chest, regional lymph nodes are also removed. After surgery for breast cancer, radiation therapy is prescribed, as well as an additional examination of the preserved lymph nodes and nearby tissues.

In the absence of contraindications, simultaneously with breast removal, it is possible to carry out plastic surgery for its reconstruction.

Complications after a mastectomy:

  • bleeding from a wound
  • temporary restriction of mobility of the shoulder joint,
  • swelling of the arms and chest.

At stages 1 and 2 of breast cancer, the operation is often limited to organ-preserving intervention, that is, removal of only the tumor focus while preserving the mammary gland. In any case, psychological support from close people and specialists is important for a woman.

Forecast and Life Span

In oncology, a 5-year survival rate is an indicator of treatment success. After breast cancer therapy, just over half of all patients cross this threshold. This is a conditional border, since overcoming it, many women live for many more years.

The life expectancy is affected by the form of the cancerous tumor, its degree of aggressiveness (growth rate), as well as the stage at which treatment began.

The worst prognosis for life is the diffuse type of neoplasm and stage 4 breast cancer - out of all patients who have been ill for 5 years, no one has lived.

With breast cancer of the 2nd degree, life expectancy, or rather the achievement of five-year, and more often ten-year survival, is about 80%. Moreover, more than half of this number of women will live 20 years or more.

The chances are higher with the effective selection and combination of several therapies. If cancer of the 3rd degree is detected, then life expectancy of 5 or more years reaches from 40 to 60% of women, depending on the substage (3A, 3B).

Breast cancer has a tendency to reappear, in most cases this occurs in the first two years after treatment.

Prevention

Effective breast cancer prevention includes these measures:

  • Attentive attitude to the state of the endocrine system - hormonal correction, oral contraceptives,
  • Pregnancy and childbirth
  • The absence of abortion, and accordingly - effective contraception,
  • Prevention and timely treatment of benign breast tumors -, fibroadenomas,
  • Regular mammogram examination - 1-2 times a year,
  • Refusal of bad habits, healthy eating, active lifestyle, good sleep.

A malignant breast tumor occurs in every 10 women. Oncology is characterized by a tendency to metastasis and aggressive growth. Breast cancer has a number of symptoms that are similar to other breast diseases in women. For this reason, at the first disturbing symptoms, you should immediately contact a qualified specialist.

What is breast cancer?

A malignant tumor of the breast is an uncontrolled growth of epithelial cells. Oncology of this type develops mainly in women, but sometimes it also occurs in the male population. A malignant neoplasm in the chest is one of the most dangerous oncologies. The mortality rate from the incidence of cancer of this species is 50%. The main cause of death is the neglect of the disease. If breast cancer is diagnosed in stages 1 or 2, then very high survival after treatment and long-term results are safe.

Often, precancerous manifestations are visible on the mammary gland. Peeling of the skin, swelling, soreness of the nipples are not only hormonal disruptions, but also symptoms of infections, cysts or mastopathy. All these pathologies are a manifestation of a precancerous condition. Symptoms of breast cancer, in which you should immediately consult a doctor:

  1. Discharge from the nipples. Observed at all stages of breast cancer. The liquid has a yellow-green color or a transparent color. Over time, redness of the skin of the nipple, ulcers, spots and wounds on the halo are formed on the chest.
  2. Lumps in the chest. They can easily be probed independently.
  3. Deformation of the appearance. When the tumor grows into denser tissues of the mammary glands and the appearance of metastases, the structure of the breast changes (especially with the edematous form or armored cancer). The skin above the focus acquires a crimson color, peeling occurs, dimples are formed like the “orange peel”.
  4. Flatness, elongation of the chest. A sunken or shriveled nipple is drawn into the gland.
  5. Swollen lymph glands. When raising arms in the armpits, pain occurs.

First signs

At the initial stage of the disease, the clinical picture is almost always asymptomatic. More often it resembles different types of mastopathy. The only difference is that with a benign tumor, the compaction is painful, but with oncology it is not. According to statistics, in 70% of women who were diagnosed with cancer, the presence of a lump in the chest was first determined, which was easily felt. The reason for going to the doctor is tenderness in the breast, even a small one. The first sign of cancer is a lump in the chest that does not disappear after menstruation.

The main factor in the occurrence of cancer is a change in the hormonal background. The cells of the ducts of the mammary glands mutate, acquiring the properties of cancerous tumors. The researchers analyzed thousands of patients with this disease and found the following factors contributing to the risk of pathology:

  • female,
  • heredity,
  • the absence of pregnancy or its occurrence after 35 years,
  • malignant neoplasms in other organs and tissues,
  • radiation exposure
  • the presence of menstruation for more than 40 years (increased activity of estrogen),
  • tall woman
  • alcohol abuse
  • smoking,
  • low physical activity
  • high dose hormone therapy,
  • obesity after menopause.

The first symptoms of breast cancer a woman can notice at 1 or 2 stages of the disease. The zero (initial) stage is non-invasive, so carcinoma may not manifest for a long time. As a rule, a woman first learns about cancer when being examined. The primary tumor can be recognized by palpation. In the second stage of cancer, the size of the neoplasm already reaches 5 cm, the lymph nodes above the clavicle, near the sternum and in the armpits increase.

The third degree of breast oncology is characterized by an increase in body temperature, retraction of the skin and / or nipple at the locations of the carcinoma, the tumor begins to grow on the surrounding tissue, affects the lymph nodes. High risk of detecting metastases in the lungs, liver, chest. At the fourth stage of breast cancer, internal organs and bones, cancer

Victoria Pedai

Psychologist. Specialist from the site b17.ru

from a friend's discharge began from the chest, and found out when she came to the doctor.

The weakness was -and then abruptly and quickly from 2 to 3. (-Sorry all etl / -smell of sweat

The weakness was -and then abruptly and quickly from 2 to 3. (-Sorry all etl / -smell of sweat

inverted nipple, discharge from the nipple, wrinkled area on the chest like an orange peel, enlarged lymph nodes. these are all signs of breast cancer. It’s best to have a mammologist every year. do not be ill

inverted nipple, discharge from the nipple, wrinkled area on the chest like an orange peel, enlarged lymph nodes. these are all signs of breast cancer. It’s best to have a mammologist every year. do not be ill

Related topics

It's scary to go to the mammologist. what if they discover? I understand that it is childish, but still. scared to know the truth

My aunt accidentally got a cat on the chest. The scratch did not heal for a long time. The aunt went to the doctor, it turned out to be cancer and a very long time. One breast was cut off. But metastases throughout the body. In a moment the aunt lost weight and died three months later (((

In the “pull the blanket over himself” scheme, the oncologist will naturally try to fit felinosis to the criteria of carcinomatosis, not to connect the inverted nipple with tuberculosis / mycoses / spirochetosis, not to treat streptococcal “lemon peel”, and to fit the signs of rejuvenation of the blood-forming sprouts under leukemia, rather than avitosis.
It does not follow from this that full-time medical care should be completely abandoned.
In addition, from sepsis or vitamin deficiency can die in dozens of minutes.

It's scary to go to the mammologist. what if they discover? I understand that it is childish, but still. scared to know the truth

it’s better to discover earlier when you can still help than when the last incurable stage. at an early stage, breast cancer is well treated and even without surgery. once a year I want to go to a mammologist stably, although there are no prerequisites

I was also interested in this before: how to detect oncology at an early stage, not to examine every time all organs and tissues. It was the mammologist who prompted me: at least once a year, blood should be donated to tumor markers. There are not many of them at all, and it was not as expensive as I expected. I was told to pass two types of tumor marker. This information helps control the oncotema in your body. All health!)

12, tell us more about which cancer markers to take, help us protect ourselves, honey!

It happens that there are no symptoms, so women after 40 must undergo an ultrasound of the breast and mammologist once a year. It is also necessary to periodically examine / feel the breast, exactly how you can find it on the Internet. An inverted nipple and discharge from it should alert, but this does not mean anything, because The discharge may be due to low progesterone, and the nipples are pulled in such a structure (I have it). So go to the doctor, and what bothers you, what are the suspicions, why are you afraid of breast cancer? Oncomarkers are also not always indicative, for example, once every half a year I donate CA-125 (for ovarian cancer) because I have endometriosis, but an increased marker may also mean progressive endometriosis, i.e. not reliable, because only a doctor’s examination + ultrasound, and what the doctor will prescribe.

As far as I know, tumor markers are not very informative. They are not in a hurry to appoint. They require serious analysis, as for example, they can often show just inflammation. And sometimes keep quiet.

As far as I know, tumor markers are not very informative. They are not in a hurry to appoint. They require serious analysis, as for example, they can often show just inflammation. And sometimes keep quiet.

My grandmother had breast cancer, accidentally hit, was sick for a long time, went and found. They removed one breast, it is checked every six months, 10 years have passed already, everything is fine. Do not worry!

Grandmother 43 didn’t feel anything, she had a physical examination and all the rules, three months later she hit her breast and was ill, she touched a bump, it turned out to be a cancer operation, chemistry, she lived another 30 years after, she died of stomach cancer, metastases, etc. , was observed all years, burned for 1 year after the death of grandfather, forgiveness sat and roared for days on end. My opinion ruined itself, for it did not want to live.
Mom 55 years old, from the age of 30 told her, you have a seal here. she suffered a chest x-ray at Christmas — the bump increased - the diagnosis of cancer — surgery, chemistry, radiation, 5 years have passed since the registry is removed, they say if in 5 years there is no process anywhere, then a hundred are cured. Pah pah ..
So me. With such a heredity. Che say. I'm afraid I do not pass regular inspections. That is me *****.

Do not you think that it is better to die whole than to cut off parts of the body and live a freak?

Do not you think that it is better to die whole than to cut off parts of the body and live a freak?

Do not you think that it is better to die whole than to cut off parts of the body and live a freak?

Do not you think that it is better to die whole than to cut off parts of the body and live a freak?

***** = s.i.s. Found what to zapikat.

And if the sarcoma, let the leg cut off or prefer to die?

And if the sarcoma, let the leg cut off or prefer to die?

I? Let them cut it. In addition to my brain, everyone can take it. For without a brain, I am not me. And without a hand-foot-kidney-eye-ear-it's still me. Now I’ve thought of total ugliness, such as a severe burn and complete disfigurement .. Hmm .. I don’t know here. When the skin hangs and you testify to the meat .. It’s rather better to die, I feel sorry for those close to me, they will look at me and think and regret each time. But you don’t need to feel sorry for me. Well, if a coma, then please disconnect me and do not suffer! And then I’m lying to me too. And my relatives go, look at the vegetable, hope. Why? (They turned it off, cried, and let them live on, but do not pour endlessly tears looking at the body. I’m no longer there. Che cherish it. My position is this.

Do not you think that it is better to die whole than to cut off parts of the body and live a freak?

Girl, well done! I admire you. With your optimism, you have lifted the mood for everyone. Health, love, kindness to you and your family.

Do yoga better. It really helps! Fact

When you personally feel your chest, at least once a month, you will immediately feel the changes that appear! The first and second time I discovered the tumor myself. The second time I felt some discomfort in that place.

And if the sarcoma, let the leg cut off or prefer to die?

It happens that there are no symptoms, so women after 40 must undergo an ultrasound of the breast and mammologist once a year. It is also necessary to periodically examine / feel the breast, exactly how you can find it on the Internet. An inverted nipple and discharge from it should alert, but this does not mean anything, because The discharge may be due to low progesterone, and the nipples are pulled in such a structure (I have it). So go to the doctor, and what bothers you, what are the suspicions, why are you afraid of breast cancer? Oncomarkers are also not always indicative, for example, once every half a year I donate CA-125 (for ovarian cancer) because I have endometriosis, but an increased marker may also mean progressive endometriosis, i.e. not reliable, because only a doctor’s examination + ultrasound, and what the doctor will prescribe.

Do not you think that it is better to die whole than to cut off parts of the body and live a freak?

I felt a seal in my chest, but I went to the doctor only after six months


Here you are! I generally have a lot of years lasting cats, which I feel bad all the time. I feel best of all only lying). Doctors can’t find anything. And I don’t think about death.

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